ātrs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *ātro-, *ātra-, from Proto-Indo-European *ētro- (quick, fast). Another possible etymological source is Proto-Indo-European *āter-, *ātr- (fire) (compare Avestan [script needed] (ātar-, fire), in which case the semantic evolution would be “hot” > “fiery, passionate” > “fast, quick.” It is also possible that *ētro- and *āter- have the same origin, or are ultimately the same stem. Cognates include dialectal Lithuanian otrùs (sensitive, delicate; passionate, dilligent, laborious), Old High German ātar (sharp; subtle; quick, fast) (< *ētró-); some researchers include also the old Thracian river name Athrys (now Jantra, in Bulgaria).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

ātrs (def. ātrais, comp. ātrāks, sup. visātrākais; adv. ātri)

  1. fast, quick, rapid (capable of moving long distances in a short time; in rapid tempo)
    ātra mašīnafast car
    visātrakais skrējējs — the fastest runner
    ātra runafast talk
    ātra izaugsmerapid growth
    pulkstenis ir ātrāks — the clock is fast (= shows the wrong time, later than it really is)
    visātrākais ir gaismas stars; tā atrums ir 300 000 kilometru sekundē — the fastest (entity) is a light ray; its speed is 300 000 kilometers per second
  2. fast, quick (which takes place or is made in a short time)
    ātrs skrējiensquick race
    ātra elpošanaquick breathing
    ātra uzvaraquick victory
    ātra nāvequick death
    ātrs lēmumsquick decision
    ātrā (medicīniskā) palīdzība — first aid (lit. quick medical help)
  3. (of people) quick to become angry, short-tempered, temperamental
    ātras dabas cilvkēs — short-tempered person (lit. a person with a quick nature)
    lepna un ātra tā pārtrauca īso sarunu, paturēdama pēdējo vārdu — proud and quick (= short-tempered), she interrupted the short conversation, keeping the last word (for herself)
  4. (of looks, smiles) quick (lasting a short time)
    tad viņš uzmeta ātru skatu Ilzei — then he cast a quick glance at Ilze

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “ātrs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7