ģimene

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See also: ģimenē

Latvian[edit]

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 Ģimene on Latvian Wikipedia

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Ģimene
Ģimene

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A borrowing from Lithuanian giminė̃ (family; kin; genus; gender), ultimately from the same Proto-Indo-European as the verb dzimt (to be born) (q.v.); cf. also Sudovian gimna (family; uncles, their wives). This borrowing is first attested in writings in the 1870s, with a broader range of meanings (“family, kin, generation, sex, gender”); the current meaning of “family” stabilized at the beginning of the 20th century. In the 1870s, J. Alunāns attempted to correct it to dzimene (which would be the regular development if the word had not been borrowed), but this form never became popular. It replaced the previous borrowing famīlija (from German Familie).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

ģimene f (5th declension)

  1. family (group formed by a man, a woman and their children (if any) living together; larger group of relatives living together)
    daudzbērnu ģimene — large (lit. many-children) family
    strādnieku ģimene — worker's family
    zemnieku ģimene — peasant family
    mazas ģimenes — small families
    saskanīga ģimenes dzīve — harmonious family life
    ģimenes stāvoklis — marital status (lit. family state)
    ģimenes budžetsfamily budget
    ģimenes galva — head of the family (= the family's breadwinner)
    ģimenes mājafamily house
    ģimenes cilvēks — married (lit. family) person, (usually a man)
    ģimenes tiesībasfamily law (legislation concerning marriage, kinship, adoption, etc.)
    mūsu ģimene ir liela: tētis, māmiņa un septiņi bērni — our family is big: father, mother and seven children
    A. Upīts romānā “Jauni Avoti”, tēlojot konfliktus starp Robežnieku ģimenes locekļiem, atspoguļo tam laikam raksturīgos konfliktus patriarhālās ģimenes iziruma apstākļos — A. Upīts depicting in (his) novel “New Sources” the conflicts between the members of the Robežnieks family also portrayed the conflicts, typical of those times, in the process of disintegration of the patriarchal family
  2. (agriculture) a group of female animals descended from one breeder
    šodien pārrunā sevišķi aktuālas tēmas: aminoskābju palielināšana cūkgaļā, līniju un ģimeņu analīzes un citas svarīgas problemas — today (they) discussed especially current issues: the increase of aminoacids in pork, the analysis of lines (= lineages) and families, and other important problems
  3. (zoology) family {{gloss|a group of animals consisting of a male, a female and their offspring, living and eating together
    stārķu ģimene — stork family, family of storks
    mežacūku ģimene — wild boar family, family of wild boars
    tas, ko parasti uzskata par vilku baru, īstenībā ir viena vilku ģimene: veco vilku pāris un viņu šā gada un pērnie vilcēni, kas ziemas sākumā sanāk kopā — that which one usually considers a pack of wolves is actually a family of wolves: an old wolf couple and their wolflings of this year and of the previoius year, who get together at the beginning of winter

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “ģimene” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.