īpašs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a compound, from an old third-person pronominal element *i- (whence also Latvian it, q.v.) and the (reflexive) pronominal element pats. An original u-stem *īpatus became īpats (peculiar) (more frequently īpatnējs), while a parallel i-stem form yielded īpašs (such pairs were frequent, sometimes suriving to the present day; cf. e.g. plats and plašs). The meaning has varied throughout time, from “its own,” “self” (17th century) to “s/he/it him/her/itself” (18th century) to finally the modern sense of “special” (19th century). Cognates include Lithuanian ypatùs (special, peculiar, different).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

īpašs (def. īpašais, comp. īpašāks, sup. visīpašākais; adv. īpaši)

  1. specific, independent (separate from others)
    viņam bija uzlikts tas pats ēdiens uz īpaša galdiņa — he was served the same dish on a special table
    vārda dienā jau mēdz ierasties bez īpašas aicināšanas! — people come on (one's) name day without special invitation!
  2. special, particular, specific (different from others, from usual)
    pievērst, veltīt īpašu uzmanību — to pay special attention
    šī bija īpaša diena — this was a special day
    vai kaut kas īpašs noticis? — has anything special happened?
    viņa strādāja labi, ar īpašu dedzību — she worked well, with special zeal
  3. specific, peculiar, unusual, unique, distinct
    Ārija parausta plecus tādā īpašā manierē, citas meitenes to neprot — Ārija shrugs (her) shoulds in such a unique manner, the other girls can't do it
    katra laikmeta dzīve atklājas īpašos konfliktos, īpašos sižetos un tēlos — the life of every era appears in (its) specific conflicts, in (its) speciic plots and characters
    tulkojumi ir īpašs literatūras žanrs ar savu specifiku — translations are a distinct literary genre with its own specificities
  4. (adverbial form) especially, specifically, on purpose, deliberately
    Juzītis pats tikko esot te bijis, īpaši braucis no Rīgas, lai viņu apciemotu! — Juzītis himself had just been there, (having) traveled from Riga specifically to visit him

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “īpašs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.