īss

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See also: iss and ISS

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *isas, *insas, from Proto-Indo-European *eis-, *is- (to move fast, forcefully, to drive) (from earlier “to hit, to move, to drive”). This root may have resulted from metathesis of *sei- (to extend one's arms; strain, strength), whence sist (to hit). Semantic development: “to hit, to move” > “to knock down, to reduce (with a blow)” > “made smaller, shorter” (participle). Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal įsas, Old Prussian insan (accusative), Sanskrit इषत (iṣát, a little, a few) (< *iṇst).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

īss (def. īsais, comp. īsāks, sup. visīsākais; adv. īsi)

  1. short (having relatively little length, less than average length)
    īsas piedurknesshort sleeves
    īsa pātagashort whip
    īsi svārkishort skirt
    īsie viļņi, īsviļņi shortwaves
    īss stāsts, dzejolis — short story, poem
  2. short, laconic
    īsos vārdos — in short, in sum, briefly (lit. in short words)
  3. short, brief (lasting relatively little time, having relatively little duration; syn. neilgs)
    pēc īsiem saules mirkļiem — after brief moments of sun(shine)
    ziemas dienas ir īsas — winter days are short
    īsa izrādeshort show
    īss koncertsshort concert
    īsa sarunashort conversation
  4. short (which goes, ends quickly, insufficiently long)
    dzīve taču ir tik īsa kā decembra diena — but life is as short as a December day
    bišu mūžs ir īss, tikai daži mēneši — bee life is short, only a few months
  5. (of feelings, states, relations) short-lived, insufficient
    mana laime bija īsa — my happiness was short
  6. (phonetics, phonology) short (pronounced with relatively little duration)
    īss patskanisshort vowel
    īsa zilbeshort syllable
  7. short, brief (lasting only a few moments)
    īss svilpiensshort whistle
    īsa skaņa, nopūtashort sound, sigh
  8. (of motion) short, quick (small, but fast)
    ar īsu žestu tas aicināja viņu apsēsties sev pretim — with a short, quick gesture that one invited him to sit down next to him

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “īss” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7