ļauns

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the stem of the verb ļaut (to allow, to permit; to tolerate) (q.v.), with a suffix *-no. The original meaning was probably “allowed (to do as s/he pleased), allowed (to let go)” (compare palaist (to let go), palaidnis (naughty child)). Cognates include Lithuanian liáunas, liaũnas (flexible; slim, slender; weal; free, serene).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

ļauns (def. ļaunais, comp. ļaunāks, sup. visļaunākais; adv. ļauni)

  1. evil, wicked (whose behavior, attitude towards others is hostile, cruel, vile, criminal)
    ļauns cilvēksevil person
    viens un tas pats cilvēks var būt vienā brīdī bezgala labs un otrā, neticami ļauns — the same person can be one moment infintely good, and then, incredibly evil
  2. evil (expressing hatred, cruelty)
    ļauns smīnsevil grin
    ļauna sirdsevil heart, malice
    ļauns prieks — gloat (lit. evil joy)
    ļauna acs (kādam) — (someone has) evil eye (i.e., can curse)
  3. evil, bad (relating to, leading to something very undesirable, misfortune, sorrow; dangerous)
    ļauns liktenisevil fate
    ļauns stāvoklisbad, twisted condition
    noticis kas ļauns — something bad happened
    ļaunākajā gadījumā — in the worst (lit. worse) case
    visas labās un ļaunās dienas — all the good and bad days
  4. evil, twisted, dark (whose content expresses something hateful, cruel)
    ļauns humorstwisted, dark humor
    ļauna slava — infamy (lit. evil fame)
  5. (of animals, plants) harmful
    no gundegu sugām pašas indīgākās ir ļaunās gundegas — of all species of buttercup the most poisonous is the celery-leaved buttercup (lit. evil buttercup)

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “ļauns” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7