šķidrs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as šķīst (to dissolve, to melt) (q.v.): Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰēi- (clear, light, shiny). With an extra suffix -d, it lead to two Proto-Baltic variants, one voiceless (with an extra s-mobile) and one voiced: *skied-, *skaid-, *skid- (whence, with an extra suffix -ru-s, šķidrs, skaidrs (clear), and also — with a different suffix — skaists (beautiful)), and *gied-, *gaid-, *gid- (whence, also with an extra -ru-s, dzidrs (clear, limpid), which is etymologically a variant of šķidrs), with some form influence between the two variants. The meaning evolved from “clear, limpid” > “(liquid) having no sediment, no sludge” > “liquid.” A different opinion is that šķidrs might ultimately derive from Proto-Indo-European *skei- (to cut, to slice).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

šķidrs (def. šķidrais, comp. šķidrāks, sup. visšķidrākais; adv. šķidri)

  1. (physics) liquid (in a state of matter such that it can flow and take the form of its container)
    šķidra vielaliquid substance
    pārvēst vielu šķidrā agregātstāvoklī — to convert a subtance to liquid state
    šķidrā degviela, šķidrais kurināmaisliquid fuel
    šķidrais stiklsliquid glass
    šķidrie minerālmēsliliquid mineral fertilizer
    šķidrie nokrišņiliquid precipitation (rainfall)
    šķidrs hēlijsliquid helium
  2. (of mixtures) liquid, thin (composed mostly of liquids, having relatively little solid parts)
    šķidra putra, zupaliquid, thin porridge, soup
  3. (colloquial, of hair, plumage, foliage, vegetation) thin, sparse
    šķidrie, gaišie matithin, light hair
    tajā dzīvoja vecs jakuts ar šķidru bārdiņu — there lived an old Yakut with a thin little beard
    krūmi aplokā gan nobiruši un šķidri — the bushes in the yard were rather fallen and thin (= had few leaves)
  4. (colloquial, of fabric, cloth) thin, worn off
    seju klāj šķidrs zīda lakatiņš — a thin silk veil covered (her) face
    lētais audums kļuvis pavisam šķidrs — the cheap fabric has become (after washing) really thin
  5. (colloquial, of groups of people) thin, sparse (with members relatively far from each other)
    pūlis pavisam mazs un šķidrs kļuvis — the crowd became small and thin
  6. (colloquial, of clouds, smoke, etc.) thin (having low density)
    reti bālganzili, šķidrs mākonīši — a few rare pale bluish thin little clouds
  7. (colloquial) thin, (scattered) few, not much, unimpressive, not good
    aplausi bija šķidri — the applause was thin
    šie man prasa: “kā ar mācībām?” “šķidri”, es saku — they ask me: “how about your training?” “thin” (= bad), I answer

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (of hair, groups of people): rets
  • (of hair, fabric, mixtures): plāns

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “šķidrs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.