The word is first attested in Homer Iliad 7.206. Believed to be a borrowed word, probably from Urartian [script needed] (burgana, “palace, fortress”); compare also Old Armenian բուրգն (burgn, “pyramid”). Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high”), with cognates including Sanskrit बृहत् (bṛhát, “lofty , high , tall”), Old Armenian բարձր (barjr, “high”) and Old English burg (English borough). Kretschmer suggested a borrowing from Proto-Germanic *burgz (“fortified town, hill-fort”) mediated through some Northern Balkans language ( Macedonian?). However, according to Beekes the abundance of Pre-Greek placenames (e.g. Πέργαμον (Pérgamon) ) seems to indicate a Pre-Greek origin.
- tower, watchtower
- (in the plural) towered wall
- the part of the house where women live
- castle, fortress, bulwark
- (military) division, column
- πύργος in A Greek–English Lexicon by Liddell & Scott, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1940
- G4444 in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible.
- Robert S. P. Beekes (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
From Ancient Greek.