משפט

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Hebrew[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the root שׁ־פ־ט (sh-p-T), in the miqTā́l pattern.

Noun[edit]

מִשְׁפָּט (mishpátm (plural indefinite form מִשְׁפָּטִים, singular construct form מִשְׁפַּט־)

  1. A trial: a legal proceeding before a court.
    • Leviticus 19:15:
      לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃
      lo-ta'asú ável bamishpát lo-tisá p'nei-dál v'lo tehdár p'néi gadól b'tzédek tishpót amitékha:
      Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honor the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbor.[1]
  2. Law: a body of laws or commandments, taken collectively.
    • Deuteronomy 4:8:
      וּמִי גּוֹי גָדוֹל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים צַדִּיקִם כְּכֹל הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לִפְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם׃
      umí goi gadól asher-ló khukím umishpatím tzadikím k'khól hatorá hazót ashér anokhí notén lif'neikhém hayóm:
      And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?[1]
  3. (biblical) A judgment, verdict, ruling: the ruling of a court.
    • 1 Kings 3:28:
      וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר שָׁפַט הַמֶּלֶךְ []
      vayishm'ú kol-yisra'él et-hamisphát ashér shafát hamélekh []
      And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; [] [1]
  4. (biblical) Justice, righteousness, just and righteous action.
    • Genesis 18:19:
      [] וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶּרֶךְ ה׳ לַעֲשֹׂות צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט []
      [] v'shamrú dérekh H. la'asót tz'daká umishpát []
      [] and they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment; [] [1]
  5. (grammar) A sentence: a grammatically complete series of words consisting of a subject and predicate.
    לכל משפט בעברית יש נושא ונשוא.
    l'khól mishpát b'ivrít yesh nosé v'nasú.
    Every Hebrew sentence has a subject and a predicate.
    נסה לתמצת את דבריך לכמה משפטים בודדים.
    nasé l'tamtzét et divrékha l'kháma mishpatím bod'dím.
    Try to condense your words into just a few sentences.
  6. (mathematics) A theorem: a mathematical claim that can be proven.
    הצלחתי להוכיח את המשפט לפיו סכום הזוויות במשולש שווה 180 מעלות.
    hitzlákhti l'hokhíakh et hamishpát l'fív s'khúm haz'viót bim'shulásh shavé 180 ma'alót.
    I managed to prove the theorem according to which the sum of the angles in a triangle is equal to 180 degrees.
    משפט פיתגורס קובע כי סכום שטחי הריבועים, הבנויים על הניצבים במשולש ישר זווית, שווה לשטח הריבוע הבנוי על היתר.
    mishpát pitagóras kovéa ki s'khúm sh'takhéi haribu'ím, hab'nuyím al hanitzavím bim'shulásh yashár zavít, shavé l'shétakh haribúa habanúi al hayéter.
    The Pythagorean theorem states that the sum of the areas of the squares built on the legs of a right-angle triangle is equal to the area of the square built on the hypotenuse.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Authorized King James translation (1611).