إن

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See also: ان, آن, and أن

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate to Hebrew אִם (ím).

Conjunction[edit]

إِنْ (ʾin)

  1. if (possible, not contrary to fact)
    إِن أَحْبَبْ‍تَنِيʾin ʾaḥbab‍ta‍‍-nī ― if you love me
    إِن تُحْبِبْنِيʾin tuḥbib-nī ― if you love me
    إِن شَاءَ ٱللّٰهʾin šāʾa llāh ― if God/Allah wills
Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Normally for conditions that are capable of being fulfilled. For contrary-to-fact conditions, use لَوْ (law). Used with the past tense or the jussive, in both cases with a present-tense meaning.

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate to Hebrew הִנֵּה (lo, behold).[1][2]

Particle[edit]

إِنَّ (ʾinna)

  1. indeed, an emphasizing sentence particle, usually untranslated
Inflection[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • The subject of a clause containing إِنَّ takes the accusative case.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2001, Edward Lipiński, Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar, page 482: One of the oldest and most important presentatives is *han, attested in Palaeosyrian and in Old Akkadian en-ma, later umma by assimilation. It is found in Ugaritic (hn), in Old Canaanite (a-nu, a-nu-ú, an-nu, an-nu-ú), in Hebrew (hinnē), in Arabic (ʾinna), In Ge'ez (ʾən-ka); e.g. Arabic ʾinna llāha ʾalā kulli šayʾin qadīrun, "behold, God has power over everything". It should be identified with the West Semitic article han-, but carefully distinguished from the conditional particle hnʾn.
  2. ^ 1997, Robert Hetzron, The Semitic Languages, page 201: The [Arabic] particle ʾinna, etymologically cognate to Hebrew hen, hinne: "behold", emphasizes that the speaker's utterance is true.