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Etymology 1[edit]

अ- (a-) +‎ पर (pára)


अपर (a-para)

  1. having nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *h₂epero-, itself a comparative of *h₂epo that gave Sanskrit अप (ápa). Cognates include Gothic 𐌰𐍆𐌰𐍂 (afar, after), Old Persian 𐎠𐎱𐎼 (apara, later, after) and Avestan 𐬀𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬀 (apara, more behind, later).


अपर (ápara)

  1. posterior, later, latter (as opposed to पूर्व (pū́rva); often in compounds)
    • RV 1.145.2
      तमित पर्छन्ति न सिमो वि पर्छति सवेनेव धीरो मनसा यदग्रभीत |
      न मर्ष्यते परथमं नापरं वचो.अस्य करत्वसचते अप्रद्र्पितः ||
      tamit pṛchanti na simo vi pṛchati sveneva dhīro manasā yadaghrabhīt |
      na mṛṣyate prathamaṃ nāparaṃ vaco.asya kratvasacate apradṛpitaḥ ||
      They ask of him: not all learn by their questioning what he, the Sage, hath grasped, as ’twere, with his own mind.
      Forgetting not the former nor the later word, he goeth on, not careless, in his mental power.
  2. following
  3. western
    • RV 1.31.4
      तवमग्ने मनवे दयामवाशयः पुरूरवसे सुक्र्ते सुक्र्त्तरः |
      शवात्रेण यत पित्रोर्मुच्यसे पर्या तवा पूर्वमनयन्नापरं पुनः ||
      tvamaghne manave dyāmavāśayaḥ purūravase sukṛte sukṛttaraḥ |
      śvātreṇa yat pitrormucyase paryā tvā pūrvamanayannāparaṃ punaḥ ||
      Agni thou madest heaven to thunder for mankind; thou, yet more pious, for pious Purūravas.
      When thou art rapidly freed from thy parents, first eastward they bear thee round, and, after, to the west.
  4. inferior, lower (as opposed to पर (pára))
  5. other, another (as opposed to स्व (svá))
  6. different (with ablative)
  7. being in the west of
  8. distant, opposite
Usage notes[edit]

Sometimes अपर (apara) is used as a conjunction to connect words or sentences e.g. अपरंच (aparaṃ-ca, moreover).


अपर (áparam

  1. the hind foot of an elephant


अपर (áparán

  1. the future
    • RV 6.33.5
      नूनं न इन्द्रापराय च सया भवा मर्ळीक उत नो अभिष्टौ |
    इत्था गर्णन्तो महिनस्य शर्मन दिवि षयाम पार्ये गोषतमाः ||
    nūnaṃ na indrāparāya ca syā bhavā mṛḷīka uta no abhiṣṭau |
    itthā ghṛṇanto mahinasya śarman divi ṣyāma pārye ghoṣatamāḥ ||
    Be ours, O Indra, now and for the future, be graciously inclined and near to help us.
    Thus may we, singing, sheltered by the Mighty, win many cattle on the day of trial.