ऋषि

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Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *(H)rši-; cognate with Avestan 𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬴𐬌𐬴 (ǝrǝšiš, seer). Morphologically probably formed from verbal root अर्षति (arṣati, to flow, pour).

Noun[edit]

ऋषि (ṛ́ṣim

  1. A rishi: a singer of sacred hymns, an inspired poet or sage, any person who alone or with others invokes the deities in rhythmical speech or song of a sacred character (e.g. the ancient hymn-singers कुत्स (kutsa), अत्रि (atri), रेभ (rebha), अगस्त्य (agastya), कुशिक (kuśika), वसिष्ठ (vasiṣṭha), व्यश्व (vy-aśva))
    • RV 1.31.1
      तवमग्ने परथमो अङगिरा रषिर्देवो देवानामभवः शिवः सखा |
      तव वरते कवयो विद्मनापसो.अजायन्त मरुतो भराजद्र्ष्टयः ||
      tvamaghne prathamo aṅghirā ṛṣirdevo devānāmabhavaḥ śivaḥ sakhā |
      tava vrate kavayo vidmanāpaso.ajāyanta maruto bhrājadṛṣṭayaḥ ||
      Thou, Agni, wast the earliest Aṅgiras, a Seer; thou wast, a God thyself, the Gods’ auspicious Friend.
      After thy holy ordinance the Maruts, sage, active through wisdom, with their glittering spears, were born.
  2. (post-Vedic) Rishi: as patriarchal sages or saints that occupy the same position in India history as the heroes and patriarchs of other countries, and constitute a peculiar class of beings in the early mythical system, as distinct from gods, men, Asuras etc.
  3. (astronomy) The seven rishis form the constellation Ursa Major
    • RV 10.82.2
      विश्वकर्मा विमना आद विहाया धाता विधाता परमोतसन्द्र्क |
      तेषामिष्टानि समिषा मदन्ति यत्रासप्तर्षीन पर एकमाहुः ||
      viśvakarmā vimanā ād vihāyā dhātā vidhātā paramotasandṛk |
      teṣāmiṣṭāni samiṣā madanti yatrāsaptaṛṣīn para ekamāhuḥ ||
      Mighty in mind and power is Visvakarman, Maker, Disposer, and most lofty Presence.
      Their offerings joy in rich juice where they value One, only One, beyond the Seven Ṛṣis.
  4. (figuratively) The seven rishis may stand for the seven senses or the seven vital airs of the body.
  5. A saint or sanctified sage in general, an ascetic, anchorite.
  6. The seventh of the eight degrees of Brahmins.
  7. A hymn or mantra composed by a rishi.
  8. A veda.
  9. A symbolical expression for the number seven.
  10. The moon.
  11. An imaginary circle.
  12. A ray of light.
  13. The fish Cyprinus rishi.

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]