Ἄρης

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Ancient Greek[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Usually derived from the Ionic word ἀρή (arḗ, bane, ruin)[1], which could be related to Sanskrit इरस्या (irasyā, malevolence), suggesting a Proto-Indo-European origin.[2]

However, Morris Silver and Pierre Chantraine propose a derivation from ἄρος (áros, use, profit, help) instead.[3]

𐀀𐀩 (a-re)[script needed], found in Linear B, is thought to be the oldest attested form of the name.[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Regularly short α in Homer and tragedy, but may be long, e.g. Il.5.31, Il.2.767, A.R.3.1187; and Aeschylus and Sophocles regularly use long α.

Proper noun[edit]

Ἄρης (Árēs) (genitive Ᾰ̓́ρεως); m, irregular declension

  1. Ares
  2. Mars (planet)
  3. war, warlike spirit
  4. epithet of Zeus, "avenger"

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ἄρης in A Greek–English Lexicon by Liddell & Scott, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1940
  • Robert S. P. Beekes (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
  • p. 1002 in S. C. Woodhouse’s English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language. Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited. 1950.
  1. ^ Ares” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary (2001).
  2. ^ Smith, William, ed., A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: John Murray, 1878.
  3. ^ 1992, Morris Silver, Taking ancient mythology economically, page 162; citing Pierre Chantraine's Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque
  4. ^ 1997, Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, edited by J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, page 634