|Kanji in this term|
/ototosama/ → /otottsan/ → /otossan/
The /otossan/ → /otoosan/ progression was artificial; regular Japanese sound changes generally would not allow this shift. The /otoosan/ form first appears in the early Meiji period in educational materials mandated by the 文部省 (Monbushō, “Ministry of Education”).
- 父 (ちち, chichi): only used to talk about one's own father
- 父親 (ちちおや, chichioya): more general and impersonal
- 父上 (ちちうえ, chichiue): more formal
- 親父 (おやじ, oyaji): more informal, similar to old man