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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
不-order.gif
Stroke order
不-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

不 不 不
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Pictogram (象形)

The character originated as a pictograph of the calyx of a flower. It was then composed into a phono-semantic character with the pictograph for mouth ( ), to form , representing "no", negation. This composed meaning then spread back to the original character 不, making it a synonym of 否. A new character of was eventually created to represent the original meaning of calyx.

A seed under the ground () with roots at the bottom. Original form of , embryo. In some form of the large seal script, the character is inside another element, probably a womb. The seed have been linked to the meaning of negation by saying that the root is the unwanted part of the plant. But the current meaning come from sound loan.

Karlgren and Weiger interpret it as a bird flying toward the sky (). The sky being the limit for the bird, thus the idea of negation.

References[edit]

  • "" (in Mandarin), 字源. URL accessed on 2014-02-24.
  • Richard Sears, "" (in English/Mandarin), Chinese Etymology. URL accessed on 2014-02-24.

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一火 (MF), four-corner 10900)

  1. no, not
  2. un-
  3. negation prefix

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19
  • Dae Jaweon: page 149, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 11, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E0D

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Jyutping bat1, fau2, Yale bat1, fau2)


Hakka[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(POJ put (put4), Guangdong put7, Hagfa Pinyim bud5)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. not, non-, un-

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana , romaji fu-)

  1. un-, non-, in-

(hiragana , romaji bu-)

  1. un-, non-, in-
  2. bad, poor

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(bu, bul, bi)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): [[, , ]] (revised: bu, bul, bi, McCune-Reischauer: pu, pul, pi, Yale: pwu, pwu, pi)
  • Name (hangeul): [[아닐, 아닐, ]] (revised: anil, anil, keul, McCune-Reischauer: anil, anil, k'ǔl, Yale: anil, anil, khul)

References[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]

Mandarin (Standard Chinese, Beijing)
Pinyin
Zhuyin ㄅㄨˋ
IPA (key) /pu⁵¹/
Audio
(file)

Adverb[edit]

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin )

  1. not
    • John 1.5
      光照在黑暗里,黑暗却接受光。
      Guāng zhào zaì hēiàn lǐ, hēi'àn què jiēshòu guāng.
      And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
    是丹麦人. — “I am not Danish.” (Literally, “I not am Danish.”)

Prefix[edit]

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin )

  1. no; un-; negation prefix
    你是丹麦人吗?是. — “Are you Danish? No.” (Literally, “You are Danish? Not are.”)

Hanzi[edit]

(Pinyin (bu4), Wade-Giles pu4)

Usage notes[edit]

  • The tone changes from fourth to second tone when followed by a fourth-tone syllable.

Compounds[edit]

Proverbs[edit]


Middle Chinese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(*biət, pǝw)


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bất, phầu, phủ, phi)

Readings[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999