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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
共-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 12 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 廿金 (TC), four-corner 44801, composition)

  1. together with, all, total
  2. to share

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 127, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1458
  • Dae Jaweon: page 283, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 243, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5171

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (共), Pronunciation (1/2)

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 鍾
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 九容切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɨoŋ/ /ki̯woŋ/ /kioŋ/ /kioŋ/ /kuawŋ/ /kĭwoŋ/ /kioŋ/
Character (共), Pronunciation (2/2)

Initial: 群 (30)
Final: 鍾
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 渠用切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡɨoŋH/ /gi̯woŋH/ /ɡioŋH/ /ɡioŋH/ /guawŋH/ /ɡĭwoŋH/ /ɡioŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
gòng ‹ gjowngH › /*N-koŋʔ-s {*N-k(r)oŋʔ-s}/ together, all
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4170 0 /*kloŋ/
4182 0 /*ɡloŋs/

Adverb[edit]

  1. together, co-

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

  • 共演 (きょうえん, kyōen)
  • 共学 (きょうがく, kyōgaku)
  • 共感 (きょうかん, kyōkan)
  • 共産 (きょうさん, kyōsan)
  • 共産党 (きょうさんとう, kyōsantō)
  • 共存 (きょうぞん, kyōzon)
  • 共著 (きょうちょ, kyōcho)
  • 共通 (きょうつう, kyōtsū)
  • 共通語 (きょうつうご, kyōtūgo)
  • 共同 (きょうどう, kyōdō)
  • 共犯 (きょうはん, kyōhan)
  • 共謀 (きょうぼう, kyōbō)
  • 共鳴 (きょうめい, kyōmei)
  • 共有 (きょうゆう, kyōyū)
  • 共用 (きょうよう, kyōyō)
  • 共和国 (きょうわこく, kyōwakoku)
  • 共依存 (きょういぞん, kyōizon)
  • 共々, 共共 (ともども, tomodomo)
  • 共営 (きょうえい, kyōei)
  • 共栄 (きょうえい, kyōei)
  • 共益 (きょうえき, kyōeki)
  • 共起 (きょうき, kyōki)
  • 共襟 (ともえり, tomoeri)
  • 共催 (きょうさい, kyōsai)
  • 共済 (きょうさい, kyōsai)
  • 共助 (きょうじょ, kyōjo)
  • 共晶 (きょうしょう, kyōshō)
  • 公共 (こうきょう, kōkyō)
  • 事共 (ことども, kotodomo)
  • 社共 (しゃきょう, shakyō)
  • 是非共 (ぜひとも, zehitomo)
  • 送料共 (そうりょうとも, sōryōtomo)
  • 中共 (ちゅうきょう, chūkyō)
  • 防共 (ぼうきょう, bōkyō)
  • 母子共 (ぼしとも, boshitomo)
  • 身共 (みども, midomo)
  • 諸共 (もろとも, morotomo)
  • 容共 (ようきょう, yōkyō)
  • 両方共 (りょうほうとも, ryōhōtomo)
  • 私共 (わたくしども, watakushidomo)
  • 何共 (なんとも, nantomo)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とも, romaji tomo)

  1. both, all

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana ども, romaji -domo)

  1. indicates plural

Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Affixing 共 to oneself indicates humbleness. Affixing 共 to other people is disrespectful compared to 達 (たち, -tachi).

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gong) (hangeul , revised gong, McCune-Reischauer kong, Yale kong)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cộng, cung, cụng, cùng, gọng, cọng, cũng)

Compounds[edit]

  • 共和 cộng hòa
  • 共張 cung trương
  • This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

  • Nôm: cọng, cộng, cùng, cũng, cụng, gọng

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999