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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
凹-bw.png
Japanese stroke order
凹-jbw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 17 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 尸尸山 (SSU), four-corner 77770)

  1. concave, hollow, depressed
  2. a pass, valley

Antonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 135, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 308, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51F9

Chinese[edit]

 
a depression; indentation; concave; hollow
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (凹), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 影 (34)
Final: 洽
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 烏洽切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɣɛp̚/ /ʔăp̚/ /ʔɐp̚/ /ʔɯæp̚/ /ʔəɨp̚/ /ɐp̚/ /ʔɐp̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
36 3 /*qriːw/
37 3 𨂁 /*qriːb/

Adjective[edit]

  1. (Advanced Mandarin) concave; hollow

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Sinitic. Date of borrowing unknown. Compare modern Mandarin (āo, wā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana おう, romaji ō, historical hiragana あふ)

  1. concave
Usage notes[edit]

The character with the reading ō is only used in compounds, and never in isolation.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown. Sound similarities might suggest a connection to words related to darkness or deep interior, such as (kumo, cloud), 蜘蛛 (kumo, spider), (kuma, a recess, a deep interior corner), (kuro, black), (kura, darkness); more at . Alternately, these broad similarities might be pure coincidence.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くぼ, romaji kubo)

  1. an area with sides higher than the center: an indentation, a depression, a dip, a divot, a hole
  2. (slang) female genitalia, the vagina
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun stem of verb 凹む (kubomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself a compound of (kubo, an indentation, a dip) +‎ (mu, to become like something, auxiliary verb attaching to nouns or adjective stems, cognate with びる biru).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くぼみ, romaji kubomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The 凹み or 窪み spelling with the okurigana is more common when used as a standalone term. The spelling without the okurigana is more common in compounds.

Etymology 4[edit]

Compound of (naka, inside, inner) +‎ (kubo, pit, indentation).[2][3][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana なかくぼ, romaji nakakubo)

  1. a sunken center
  2. a place or object with a sunken center
Usage notes[edit]

The 中窪 spelling is more common.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Noun stem of verb 凹む (hekomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself an abbreviated compound of 減り (heri, noun stem of verb 減る heru, “to reduce, to decrease, to diminish”) +‎ 込む (komu, to go inwardly).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana へこみ, romaji hekomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
  2. a mistake, and error
  3. a moment of weakness or confusion, being at a loss
Usage notes[edit]

The 凹み spelling is more common.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Uncertain. Possibly onomatopoeic from the sound of a wheel bouncing in a rut or pothole, or from the sound of something hollow when tapped. Compare adverb ぼこぼこ (bokoboko, full of holes; hollowly).

Alternately, may be compound of (bo, empty?, uncertain; possibly related to verb 掘る horu, “to dig, to dig out”) +‎ (ko, place, suffixing element seen in other words such as そこ soko, “there” or 端っこ hashikko, “edge, end, tip”). Compare (deko, protrusion), likely a compound of (de, coming out) + (ko, place, suffixing element).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぼこ, romaji boko)

  1. an indentation, a dip or divot, a hollow, a dent in a surface
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yo)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: yo, McCune-Reischauer: yo)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ao)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.