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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
大-order.gif
Stroke order
大-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Ideogram (指事): a person with arms stretched out as far as possible, implying the meaning of big/great/large. This is in contrast to which represents a person with lowered arms implying small in size.

Compare with , which is a man with bent legs with the meaning of weak.

Compare also , which is a man with arms outstretched and a chest or a tattoo on his chest denoting culture or language, and to , which is a man with arms outstretched and leaning to side (running), denoting youth.

大 大 大 大
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Han character[edit]

(radical 37 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 大 (K), four-corner 40030/40800, composition)

  1. big, great, vast, large, high
Antonyms[edit]
Derived characters[edit]
Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 248, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5831
  • Dae Jaweon: page 492, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 520, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5927

Chinese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Three pronunciations can be found in Modern Standard Chinese:

1) Modern , from Middle Chinese L, from Old Chinese *daːds. The phonological development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese is irregular. Original sense: "big" (Shijing). Derived senses: "size" (Mozi), "thick" (Zhuangzi), "to respect" (Mengzi), "to respect" (Xunzi), "to extol" (Gongyang Zhuan), "to exaggerate" (Classic of Rites), "arrogant" (Guoyu), "good" (I Ching), "(of time) long" (Erya), "senior" (Shijing).

2) Modern dài, from Middle Chinese dɑiL, from Old Chinese *daːds. This Middle Chinese pronunciation-preserving (i.e. literary) pronunciation occurs only in compounds such as 大夫 (dàifu, "doctor") and 大王 (dàiwang, "(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader").

3) Modern tài, from Middle Chinese tʰɑiL, from Old Chinese *tʰaːds. This is the ancient form of (tài, "too, excessively") and is obsolete in modern languages.

Pronunciation 2), the diphthong reading, is traditionally regarded as the correct one. However, the monophthong reading 1) has been recorded as early as Han Dynasty, and Sui-Tang rhyme books record both. Both readings are reflected in Sino-xenic readings in non-Sinitic languages, although the diphthong readings dominate in compounds. Axel Schüssler postulates that all pronunciations can eventually be traced back to liquid initials, i.e. 1,2) **laːts, 3) **hlaːts.

The three pronunciations are cognate. Within Chinese, they are cognate with (tài, OC *tʰaːds, "too, excessively"), (tài, OC *tʰaːds, "big", note that this character also means "to reach", perhaps unrelated), (dàn, OC *l̥aːnʔ, "big, magniloquent, ridiculous"). There are no unambiguous Tibeto-Burman cognates. Proto-Tibeto-Burman *taj (big), from which came Written Tibetan མཐེ་བོ (mthe bo, "thumb"), Nung tʰɛ ("big, large, great"), Mikir tʰè, ketʰè ("id."), Written Burmese တယ် (tai, very), is often compared with. There is no final -s in the Tibeto-Burman words, but a -y, which, according to James Matisoff, "indicates emergent quality in stative verbs". Also compare Chinese (duō, OC *ʔl̥aːl, "many, much"), (dū > dōu, OC *taː, "all").

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (大), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 定 (7)
Final: 泰
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 徒蓋切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/ /dʱɑiH/ /dɑiH/ /dɑiH/ /dajH/ /dɑiH/ /dɑiH/
Character (大), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 定 (7)
Final: 歌
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 唐佐切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑH/ /dʱɑH/ /dɑH/ /dɑH/ /daH/ /dɑH/ /dɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ daH › /*lˤat-s (MC F!)/ big
‹ dajH › /*lˤa[t]-s/ big

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1934 1 /*daːds/
1939 1 /*daːds/

Adjective[edit]

  1. big, large, huge
  2. big, great, deep
  3. main, major
  4. loud, heavy
  5. old, eldest
Antonyms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

  1. greatly, very much

Noun[edit]

  1. (dialectal) father
  2. (dialectal) father's elder or younger brother

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

  1. See 大夫.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (大):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana だい, romaji dai-)

  1. big, large
  2. the large part of
  3. university
Usage notes[edit]

This is often the first half two-character shorthand name of universities, for example 東大 (Tokyo University, Tōdai)

Etymology 2[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana おお, romaji ō-)

  1. big

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(dae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: dae, McCune-Reischauer: tae, Yale: tay)
  • Name (hangeul): 크다 (revised: keuda, McCune-Reischauer: k'ŭda, Yale: khuta)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Mulam[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(lo4)

  1. big

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đại, dãy, dảy)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]