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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
天-order.gif
Stroke order
天-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

天 天 天 天
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms ().

Ancient representation of the character show a man with a large head, an anthropomorphic representation of heaven.

Graphical opposite of

Han character[edit]

(radical 37 +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一大 (MK), four-corner 10430, composition)

Note: The top line can be either longer or shorter than the arms.

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 248, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5833
  • Dae Jaweon: page 500, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 522, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5929

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (天), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 透 (6)
Final: 先
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 他前切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰen/ /tʰien/ /tʰen/ /tʰen/ /tʰɛn/ /tʰien/ /tʰɛn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
tiān ‹ then › /*l̥ ˤi[n]/ heaven
xiān ‹ xen › /*l̥ ˤi[n] (W dialect: l̥ ˤ- > Hàn-time *xˤ- > MC x-)/ heaven

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
12387 1 /*qʰl'iːn/

Noun[edit]

  1. heaven, God
    • [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Wǒ de tiān a! [Pinyin]
      Oh, my God!, Oh, God! Heaven! (interjection)
    • [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Tiān zhù zì zhù zhě. [Pinyin]
      God (heaven) only helps those who help themselves.
  2. weather, sky
    • [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Tiān hēi le. [Pinyin]
      It got dark (in the evening).
  3. day (as part of compound words, such as 今天, 明天)
  4. season

Synonyms[edit]

  • (day (to express date))

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

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Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あま, romaji ama)

  1. (archaic) the sky, the heavens
  2. the area above a kitchen stove:
    1. where the smoke collects in an old kitchen using a wood-burning stove
    2. a shelf or shelves above the stove
  3. (archaic) heaven
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Japanese ama (see above). Likely derived by fusion of ama + (i, emphatic nominative particle), similar to the derivation of other words such as (kami, kamu + i), (me, ma + i), etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あめ, romaji ame)

  1. (archaic) the sky, the heavens
  2. (archaic) heaven
  3. (archaic) the roof of a palace
Idioms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese (/tʰen/). Compare modern Mandarin (tiān).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana てん, romaji ten)

  1. the sky, the heavens
  2. heaven
  3. (metaphorically) the gods, providence, fate
Idioms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(cheon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: cheon, McCune-Reischauer: ch'ŏn)
  1. (하늘 , haneul cheon) sky; heaven; Godhead; tao; etc.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thiên, yêu, quách)

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