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See also: , , and 𡕒

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
年-order.gif
Stroke order
年-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

The older form of 年, , is a combination of , which means grain or rice and the phonetic element , which indicates extension. The meaning went from person wading through crops in harvesting to harvest and then to year because of the harvest after a long cycle.

Han character[edit]

(radical 51 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人手 (OQ), four-corner 80500)

  1. year
  2. new year
  3. person's age

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 340, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9168
  • Dae Jaweon: page 648, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 37, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5E74

Chinese[edit]

year
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (年), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 泥 (8)
Final: 先
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 奴顚切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nen/ /nien/ /nen/ /nen/ /nɛn/ /nien/ /nɛn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
nián ‹ nen › /*C.nˤi[ŋ]/ harvest; year

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9482 2 /*niːŋ/ 同秊

Noun[edit]

  1. year

Classifier[edit]

  1. a classifier for years

Proper noun[edit]

  1. a Chinese surname

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Sinitic .

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

(hiragana ねん, romaji -nen)

  1. years

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana ねん, romaji -nen)

  1. a grade, a school year
     (かれ)中学2 (ちゅうがくに) (ねん)だ。
    kare wa chūgaku ni-nen da.
    He's in the second grade in junior high school.
  2. a year
    2008 (にせんはち) (ねん) (はし)建設 (けんせつ) (はじ)めるようだ。
    ni sen hachi-nen ni hashi o kensetsu shihajimeru yō da.
    They seem to be going to start constructing the bridge in (the year) 2008.

Etymology 2[edit]

/to2si/ > /tosi/

From Old Japanese. Originally referred to grain, particularly rice, and by extension, the year's harvest.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とし, romaji toshi)

  1. (obsolete) grain, particularly rice
  2. (obsolete) a grain harvest, a grain crop
  3. a year
  4. age

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

/to2se/ > /tose/

From Old Japanese. Likely a shift in pronunciation from toshi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana とせ, romaji -tose)

  1. used in counting years; years

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nyeon, yeon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): 년, 연 (revised: nyeon, yeon, McCune-Reischauer: nyŏn, yŏn, Yale: nyen, nyen)
  • Name (hangeul): 해, 해 (revised: hae, hae, McCune-Reischauer: hae, hae, Yale: hay, hay)
  1. year

Counter[edit]

(nyeon) (hangeul )

  1. year

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(niên, nên, năm)

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