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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  (skewer) + semantic  (heart) – pain in the heart. Note the use of (skewer), suggesting the heart being pierced with suffering.

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 中中心 (LLP), four-corner 50336, composition)

  1. suffer, worry about
  2. suffering

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 388, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10691
  • Dae Jaweon: page 721, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2300, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+60A3

Chinese[edit]

 
misfortune; suffer (from illness); trouble; danger; worry; to contract (a disease)
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (患), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 刪
Division: II

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 胡慣切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɣuanH/ /ɣwanH/ /ɣuanH/ /ɦʷɯanH/ /ɦwaɨnH/ /ɣwanH/ /ɣuɐnH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
huàn ‹ hwaenH › /*[g]ˤro[n]-s/ calamity; distress

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
5364 3 /*ɡroːns/ 本從串(毌)聲

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hwan) (hangeul , revised hwan, McCune-Reischauer hwan, Yale hwan)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hoạn)

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