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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 人火心 (OFP), four-corner 27339, composition)

  1. honorific for 'you'

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 388, character 34
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10712
  • Dae Jaweon: page 721, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2301, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+60A8

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Jyutping nei5, Yale nei5)

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Hakka[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(POJ nên (nen5), -nîn (nin5), Hagfa Pinyim nen2, nin2)

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References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

("you" (2nd sg. and pl.)) + Radical: ("heart"). Phonetically derived from 你 (ni) + Altaic genitive -yın/yin, -ün/un. This character was not listed in Sui/Tang rhyme books. First attested in Jin/Yuan-era novels, when it was also written as (original MC pron. ȵʑǐĕm), and occurred predominantly in attributive environments, forming complementary distribution with 你 in other cases. Originally, 您 was a pronoun for both 2nd sg. and 2nd pl., and 你每 (> 你们) was an (equilibrating) disyllabic version of 您, which retains the -m syllable coda of 您 disappearing in Mandarin. Later, in Beijing dialect, -们 was restricted to purely a plural suffix, and 您 restricted to purely a 2nd sg. honorific pronoun, although the 2nd pl. hon. 您们 is still considered ungrammatical. The plural sense of 您 is retained in Tianjin dialect (as in 您了先聊,我到外头溜达溜达。 "Please continue your conversation, I'll just be having a walk outside.") and in Min .[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Pinyin nín (nin2), Wade-Giles nin2)

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Pronoun[edit]

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin nín)

  1. (polite) you

Synonyms[edit]

  • you (informal)
  • you (archaic)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 388, character 34
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10712
  • Dae Jaweon: page 721, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2301, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+60A8
  1. ^ 吕叔湘 (Lü Shuxiang),《释您,俺,咱,喒,附论们字》,in 《吕叔湘全集》第二卷 汉语语法论文集。
  2. ^ 张俊阁,《近代汉语第二人称代词“您(恁)”的来源》,聊城大学学报(社会科学版),2010年第1期。

Min Nan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(traditional and simplified, POJ lín (lin2))

  1. (plural) you
  2. (possessive) your

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nâm)

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