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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 一一心 (MMP), four-corner 10331, composition)

  1. evil, wicked, mean, bad, foul

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 391, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10824
  • Dae Jaweon: page 724, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2307, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+60E1

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (惡), Pronunciation (1/3)

Initial: 影 (34)
Final: 模
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 哀都切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuo/ /ʔuo/ /ʔo/ /ʔuo/ /ʔɔ/ /u/ /ʔo/
Character (惡), Pronunciation (2/3)

Initial: 影 (34)
Final: 模
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 烏路切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuoH/ /ʔuoH/ /ʔoH/ /ʔuoH/ /ʔɔH/ /uH/ /ʔoH/
Character (惡), Pronunciation (3/3)

Initial: 影 (34)
Final: 鐸
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 烏各切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/ /ʔak̚/ /ɑk̚/ /ʔɑk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
è ‹ ʔak › /*ʔˁak/ bad, ugly
‹ ʔuH › /*ʔˁak-s/ hate (v.)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
14217 0 /*qaː/
14219 0 /*qaːɡs/
14220 0 /*qaːɡ/

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ak, o) (hangeul , , revised ak, o, McCune-Reischauer ak, o, Yale ak, o)

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Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ác, )

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