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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 土戈心 (GIP), four-corner 45331, composition)

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References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 401, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11149
  • Dae Jaweon: page 740, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2341, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6179

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (慹), Pronunciation 1/4

Initial: 章 (23)
Final: 緝
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 之入切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕiɪp̚/ /t͡ɕi̯əp̚/ /t͡ɕiəp̚/ /t͡ɕip̚/ /cip̚/ /t͡ɕĭĕp̚/ /t͡ɕjep̚/
Character (慹), Pronunciation 2/4

Initial: 從 (15)
Final: 緝
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 秦入切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ziɪp̚/ /d͡zʱi̯əp̚/ /d͡ziəp̚/ /d͡zip̚/ /d͡zip̚/ /d͡zĭĕp̚/ /d͡zjep̚/
Character (慹), Pronunciation 3/4

Initial: 章 (23)
Final: 葉
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 之涉切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕiᴇp̚/ /t͡ɕi̯ɛp̚/ /t͡ɕiɛp̚/ /t͡ɕiɛp̚/ /ciap̚/ /t͡ɕĭɛp̚/ /t͡ɕjæp̚/
Character (慹), Pronunciation 4/4

Initial: 泥 (8)
Final: 怗
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 奴協切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nep̚/ /niep̚/ /nep̚/ /nep̚/ /nɛp̚/ /niep̚/ /nɛp̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zhé ‹ nep › /*nˤ[i]p/ afraid
zhé ‹ tsyep › /*t-nep/ afraid; to fear
zhí ‹ tsyip › /*t-nip (dialect *t-n- > *t-)/ afraid, to fear

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
17280 2 /*tjeb/
17284 2 /*ndiːb/
17286 2 /*sdib/
17291 2 /*tjib/