明白

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Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

From  ("to be bright > clear") +  ("to be white > clean, bright"). Attested in Zhuangzi ("clear and clean"), Chu Ci ("bright and clean"), Mozi ("to be evident, clear"), Tao Te Ching ("to know, to understand").

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (明白, reconstructed)
Character (明), Pronunciation (1/1)

Initial: 明 (4)
Final: 庚
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 武兵切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɣiæŋ/ /mi̯ɐŋ/ /miɐŋ/ /mɯiaŋ/ /miajŋ/ /mĭɐŋ/ /miaŋ/
Character (白), Pronunciation (1/1)

Initial: 並 (3)
Final: 陌
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 傍陌切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/bɣæk̚/ /bʱɐk̚/ /bɐk̚/ /bɯak̚/ /baɨjk̚/ /bɐk̚/ /bak̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (明白, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
míng ‹ mjæng › /*mraŋ/ bright
bái ‹ bæk › /*bˁrak/ white
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9188 0 /*mraŋ/
207 0 /*braːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

明白

  1. to be clear, obvious, evident; clearly, obviously
  2. to be open, frank, explicit; explicitly
  3. to be sensible, reasonable
  4. to understand, to know

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to express understanding of a meaning or a situation. To express an ability to understand a language, see / (huì shuō), 聽懂/听懂 (tīngdǒng) or 看懂 (kàndǒng).
  • Not to be confused with 明日.

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (明白):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
めい
Grade: 2
はく
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Adjectival noun[edit]

明白 (-na inflection, hiragana めいはく, romaji meihaku)

  1. clear, obvious, plain, positive
    明白 (めいはく)安保理決議違反 (あんぽりけつぎいはん)だ。
    Meihaku na anpori ketsugi ihan da.
    It is a clear violation of Security Council resolutions.

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

明白 (hiragana めいはく, romaji meihaku)

  1. unmistakableness, unmistakability

References[edit]

  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakkan, ISBN 4095102535.
  • 2002, Yasuo Kitahara, 明鏡国語辞典 (Meikyō Kokugo Jiten), First Edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten, ISBN 4469021067