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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
氏-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – a man bowing over to the left. Significantly abstracted – the middle cross was initially the knee, the stroke at bottom left was the bowed head, and the top was the back-swept hands or clothes.

Han character[edit]

(radical 83 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 竹女心 (HVP), four-corner 72740)

  1. clan, family
  2. mister
  3. (formerly) née, born as, maiden name

Usage notes[edit]

  • The third meaning has become largely obsolete, as current Chinese practice is for married women to continue to use their former surnames. The practice of sometimes adopting the husband's surname is being revived, however.follows the maiden name, which follows the married name氏 (née Zhang), 張氏 (Li née Zhang), or 張氏 (married to a lady of the Zhang clan).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 597, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17026
  • Dae Jaweon: page 988, character 30
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2130, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6C0F

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (氏), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: 章 (23)
Final: 支
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 章移切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕiᴇ/ /t͡ɕie̯/ /t͡ɕie/ /t͡ɕiɛ/ /ciə̆/ /t͡ɕǐe/ /t͡ɕjɛ/
Character (氏), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: 精 (13)
Final: 清
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 子盈切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siᴇŋ/ /t͡si̯ɛŋ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /t͡siajŋ/ /t͡sĭɛŋ/ /t͡siæŋ/
Character (氏), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: 常 (25)
Final: 支
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 承紙切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiᴇX/ /ʑie̯X/ /ʑieX/ /d͡ʑiɛX/ /d͡ʑiə̆X/ /ʑǐeX/ /d͡ʑjɛX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shì ‹ dzyeX › /*k.deʔ/ clan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11513 0 /*skeŋ/ 漢縣
11515 0 /*kje/ 月氏
11523 0 /*ɡjeʔ/ 甲金文象人俯伏手臂下據着地(右下菱形象封土,指胙土命氏,金文省爲圓點),以表對氏族份地的禮敬,後轉註爲坁祇,非乁聲

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. a family; a clan
  2. Mr.; Mrs.
  3. a certain person

(hiragana うじ, romaji uji)

  1. a family name
  2. birth; lineage

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ssi, ji) (hangeul , , revised ssi, ji, McCune-Reischauer ssi, chi, Yale ssi, ci)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thị)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.