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Translingual[edit]

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  (water) + phonetic 

The Old Chinese word is believed to have been pronounced very much like 每, with an m- initial. Baxter-Sagart reconstruct the Old Chinese as *m̥ˤəʔ; compare with 每 *mˤəʔ.

Appears with (2 dots) in Chinese, yielding , but with simplified form (1 cross stroke) in Japanese shinjitai, yielding = 氵 + . These are however encoded with the same Unicode character – see Han unification.

Stroke order

Han character[edit]

(radical 85 +7 in Chinese, 水+6 in Japanese, in Chinese 10 strokes, in Japanese 9 strokes, cangjie input 水人田卜 (EOWY), four-corner 38157, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 625, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1023, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1627, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6D77

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (海), Pronunciation (1/1)

Initial: 曉 (32)
Final: 咍
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 呼改切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/hʌiX/ /xɑ̆iX/ /xᴀiX/ /həiX/ /həjX/ /xɒiX/ /xɒiX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
hǎi ‹ xojX › /*m̥ˁəʔ (dial. *m̥ˁ- › x-)/ sea
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9283 0 /*hmlɯːʔ/

Noun[edit]

  1. sea, ocean

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​. Hai (mainland China, Taiwan), Hoi (Hong Kong)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

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Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from compound of u (stem indicating ocean) (compare uo (fish), ushio (salt water), unagi (eel)) and mi (water)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana うみ, romaji umi)

  1. sea
  2. beach

Derived terms[edit]

  • 海路 (うなじ, unaji): sea route
  • 海辺 (うみべ, umibe): beach, seashore
  • 海鳥 (うみどり, umidori): sea bird
  • 海原 (うなばら, unabara): ocean, sea
  • 海草 (うみぐさ, umigusa): seaweed
  • 大海 (おおうみ, ooumi): ocean, large sea
  • 海風 (うみかぜ, umikaze): sea breeze
  • 荒海 (あらうみ, araumi): rough sea
  • 海山 (うみやま, umiyama): sea and mountains
  • 血の海 (ちのうみ, chi no umi): pool of blood
  • 海亀 (うみがめ, umigame): sea turtle
  • 海の幸 (うみのさち, umi no sachi): seafood
  • 海沿い (うみぞい, umizoi): coastlands
  • 海狸 (うみだぬき, umidanuki): beaver
  • 海鳴り (うみなり, uminari): rumbling of the sea
  • 海綿 (うみわた, umiwata): sponge
  • (うなぎ, unagi): eel
  • 青海原 (あおうなばら, aounabara); blue sea
  • 入海 (いりうみ, iriumi); bay, inlet, gulf, creek
  • 外海 (そとうみ, sotoumi); open seas
  • 泥海 (どろうみ, doroumi); muddy sea
  • 海牛 (うみうし, umiushi); sea slug

Noun[edit]

(hiragana わた, romaji wata)

  1. sea
  2. beach

Derived terms[edit]

  • 海神 (わたつみ, watatsumi): sea god
  • 海主 (わたぬし, watanushi): sea master, sea god

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji mi)

  1. sea
  2. beach

Derived terms[edit]

  • 温海 (あつみ, atsumi): warm sea

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hae) (hangeul , revised hae, McCune-Reischauer hae, Yale hay)

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Compounds[edit]


Mulam[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hai3)

  1. sea

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hải, hẩy, hấy)

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