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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
犬-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Although the alternative form clearly shows only three strokes, it is still counted as four strokes when using a Chinese dictionary. Compare from (water), from (hand), and from (heart), all of which are a 3-stroke form from a 4-stroke character.

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – the dot is the ear. In the form , a dog that is up on its hind legs.

The character is considered a rather abstract rendition – Confucius is quoted as saying “The ancients must have had very strange looking dogs” (500 BCE).[1]

犬 犬 犬 犬
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Han character[edit]

(radical 94 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input (IK), four-corner 43030, composition)

  1. radical number 94

Usage notes[edit]

犬 is the 94th radical in the Chinese dictionary. Compound characters such as mostly use the alternative form at the left of the character. Most represent something to do with dogs or other animals. A smaller proportion (e. g. ) use the primary form at the right of the character. A few even show both forms: in which means "prison" or "litigation"; "words" () stand between two dogs to keep them from biting each other.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 705, character 27
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 20234
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1118, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1331, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+72AC

Usage notes[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Sears, "Chinese Etymology: Primitives and Remnants", URL accessed on 2008-08-14.

Chinese[edit]

simpl. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-kʷəj-n. This common Sino-Tibetan word has been replaced by in most dialects except a few Min dialects, such as Fuzhou dialect (BUC): 犬 /kēng/. In other dialects, this word is mainly found in compounds and not used alone.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (犬), Pronunciation (1/1)

Initial: 溪 (29)
Final: 先
Division: IV

Openness: Closed
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 苦泫切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰwenX/ /kʰiwenX/ /kʰuenX/ /kʰʷenX/ /kʰwɛnX/ /kʰiwenX/ /kʰuɛnX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
quǎn ‹ khwenX › /*kʷʰˁenʔ {*[k]ʷʰˁ[e][n]ʔ}/ dog
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10736 2 /*kʰʷeːnʔ/

Noun[edit]

A dog (a Labrador)

  1. (archaic, Min Dong, dialectal Wu) dog

Derived terms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (gǒu) (more common)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (犬):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. a dog
  2. the dog radical (いぬ)

Readings[edit]

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
いぬ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Derivation uncertain. Various theories exist, including derivation from ancient verb 往ぬ (inu, to leave, to be gone), from the way a dog will guard the house while the master is away; from a compound of (ie, house, home) + (nu, to sleep, ancient monosyllabic form of modern 寝る (neru)); from ancient Japanese (enu, puppy, dog), itself of uncertain derivation; or as a borrowing from some other unknown language.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(counter , hiragana いぬ, katakana イヌ, romaji inu)

  1. a dog; canine
     (いぬ)毎日餌 (まいにちえさ) ()げて (くだ)さい。
    Inu ni mainichi esa o agete kudasai.
    Please feed the dog every day.
  2. one who is loyal (like a dog)
  3. a spy

Alternative forms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gyeon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gyeon, McCune-Reischauer: kyŏn, Yale: kyen)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. dog

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Miyako[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese (inu).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese (inu).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese (inu).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Compounds[edit]


Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Old Japanese (inu).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いん, romaji in)

  1. dog

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khuyển, chó, Thái)

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