研究

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See also: 硏究

Chinese[edit]

Chinese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia zh

grind fine; study; research after all; to investigate; to study carefully
simp. and trad.
(研究)

Etymology[edit]

From  ("to grind, to study") +  ("to probe").

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (研究, reconstructed)
Character (研), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 疑 (31)
Final: 先
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 吾甸切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋenH/ /ŋienH/ /ŋenH/ /ŋenH/ /ŋɛnH/ /ŋienH/ /ŋɛnH/
Character (究), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 尤
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 居祐切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɨuH/ /ki̯ə̯uH/ /kiuH/ /kiuH/ /kuwH/ /kĭəuH/ /kiəuH/

Definitions[edit]

研究

  1. to research; to study; research, studies
  2. to deliberate, to discuss, to investigate; investigation, deliberation

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (研究):


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
けん
Grade: 3
きゅう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese 研究 (ngen *kiuH?). Compare modern Hakka ngiên-kiu, Min Dong ngiĕng-géu, Min Nan gián-kiù.

The original on'yomi for the first character was gen, more closely matching the Chinese origins. For reasons unknown, the reading shifted from gen to a kan'yō yomi of ken.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

研究 (hiragana けんきゅう, romaji kenkyū)

  1. a piece of research, a study, investigation
    • 1928, 寺田寅彦, 雑感:
      間違 (まちが)える (こと)なしには研究 (けんきゅう) (すす)められない。
      machigaeru koto nashi ni wa kenkyū wa susumerarenai.
      Research cannot advance without mistakes along the way.

Compounds[edit]

Verb[edit]

研究 + する (hiragana けんきゅうする, romaji kenkyū suru)

  1. to research, to study
    • 1931, 宮本百合子, 五ヵ年計画とソヴェトの芸術:
      これらの作品 (さくひん)研究 (けんきゅう)された。
      korera no sakuhin ga kenkyū sareta.
      These works have been studied.

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakkan, ISBN 4095102535.

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this word

Noun[edit]

研究 (yeon-gu) (hangeul 연구)

  1. Alternative form of 硏究

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Verb[edit]

研究

  1. Hán tự form of nghiên cứu, "to research"