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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 167 +3, 11 strokes, cangjie input 金水戈 (CEI), four-corner 87140)

  1. ornamental hairpin

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1297, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40191
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1800, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4173, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+91F5

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Jyutping caa1, caai1, Yale cha1, chaai1)

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

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Wikipedia ja

(sai): An antique Okinawan sai.
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From Middle Chinese (*chrɛi). Compare modern Mandarin traditional or simplified (chāi, chā, hairpin, sai (weapon)).

This character was originally used in Japanese to mean hairpin, and was read with a kun'yomi of kanzashi. The similarity in shape between a hairpin and the weapon called a sai later led to this character being used to refer to the weapon. In modern Japanese, this character is read primarily with its on'yomi of sai, and is used to refer to the weapon.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana さい, romaji sai)

  1. (weaponry) A sai: a short blunt weapon with a wide guard, used mainly for defense against opponents armed with swords

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

(kanzashi): A 舞子 (maiko, apprentice geisha) with the willow-themed kanzashi for the month of June.
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Originally a compound of (kamu, hair, hair of the head, unbound Old Japanese form) +‎ 挿し (sashi, sticker-through (something that sticks through), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem form) of verb 挿す sasu “to stick through, to insert”).[1][2] The sashi changes to zashi due to rendaku (連濁).

/kamusaɕi//kanzaɕi/

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かんざし, romaji kanzashi)

  1. a hairpin, particularly a fancy decorative hairpin used in Japanese women's hairstyles
Usage notes[edit]

This sense is more commonly spelled in kanji as or in kana as かんざし.

Etymology 3[edit]

May be a sound shift from kanzashi.[1]

/kanzaɕi//kazaɕi/

Alternately, this may be a compound of (ka, hair, apophonic form of ke “hair”) +‎ 挿し (sashi, sticker-through).[1]

A folk etymology occasionally encountered is that this as a compound of (ka, flower) + 挿し (sashi, sticker-through), as many decorative hairpins have floral themes. However, this etymology would mix the Chinese-derived on'yomi of ka and the Old Japanese-derived kun'yomi of sashi, which seems less probable than the above two possibilities.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かざし, romaji kazashi)

  1. (obsolete) a hairpin (see above)
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(chae, cha) (hangeul , , revised chae, cha, McCune-Reischauer ch'ae, ch'a, Yale chay, cha)

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Mandarin[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Pinyin chāi (chai1), Wade-Giles ch'ai1)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(sai, thoa, soa)

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