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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 182 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI), 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Etymology[edit]

Stroke order
風-order.gif

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *Ĉ.lɯmᴬ (wind), Korean 바람 (baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང (rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이 (baramdung-i).

Cognate with 飛廉 ("wind god"), 蜚蠊 ("cockroach") (notice how the -r- infix in Old Chinese was preserved through disyllabification, also , ), ("mad, insane"), ("to mock, to advise"), ("sail"). The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Graphically: Phono-semantic compound (形聲):  +  (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲). The stroke inside the enclosure has merged with the 虫, so compound is graphically  + ; compare similar development in (from ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (風), Pronunciation (1/2)

Initial: 幫 (1)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 方戎切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuŋ/ /pi̯uŋ/ /piuŋ/ /piuŋ/ /puwŋ/ /pĭuŋ/ /piuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fēng ‹ pjuwng › /*prəm/ wind (n.)
fèng ‹ pjuwngH › /*prəm-s/ blow; criticize
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2921 3 /*plum/
2929 3 /*plums/ 同諷見詩

Definitions[edit]

  1. wind
    • 風雨, 狂風, 風水
    • [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      蘀 xī 蘀 xī, fēng qí chuī nǚ. shū xī bó xī, chàng yǔ hé nǚ. [Pinyin]
      Ye withered leaves! Ye withered leaves! How the wind is blowing you away! O ye uncles, Give us the first note, and we will join in with you.
    • 盛饌迅雷 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      • From: The Analects of Confucius, circa 475 – 221 B.C.E..
      Qǐn bù shī, jū bù róng. jiàn qí shuāi zhě, suī xiá, bì biàn. jiàn miǎn zhě yǔ gǔ zhě, suī xiè, bì yǐ mào. xiōng fú zhě shì zhī. shì fù bǎn zhě. yǒu shèngzhuàn, bì biàn sè ér zuò. xùnléi fēngliè, bì biàn. [Pinyin]
      In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.
  2. air, atmosphere
  3. general mood, custom
    • 風俗, 風氣
    • :「嗚呼四海股肱。」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      Wáng yuē: "Wūhū! shuō, sìhǎi zhī nèi, xián yǎng zhèn dé, shí nǎi fēng. gǔgōng wéi rén, liáng chén wéi shèng." [Pinyin]
      The king said, "Oh! Yue, that all within the four seas look up to my virtue is owing to you. As his legs and arms form the man, so does a good minister form the sage (king)."
  4. demeanour
  5. cultivation, moralisation
  6. style, manner
  7. conduct, discipline
  8. power
  9. news, information
  10. love, affection; to become sexually attracted; copulate
    • 風月, 風情, 風馬牛不相及
    • 臣妾逋逃常刑無敢寇攘垣牆臣妾常刑 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      Mǎ niú qí fēng, chénqiè būtáo, wù gǎn yuè zhú, zhī fù zhī, wǒ shāng lài rǔ. nǎi yuè zhú bù fù, rǔ zé yǒu chángxíng! wúgǎn kòurǎng, yú yuánqiáng, qiè mǎ niú, yòu chénqiè, rǔ zé yǒu chángxíng! [Pinyin]
      When the horses or cattle are seeking one another, or when your followers, male or female, abscond, presume not to leave the ranks to pursue them. But let them be carefully returned. I will reward you (among the people) who return them according to their value. But if you leave your places to pursue them, or if you who find them do not restore them, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments. And let none of you presume to commit any robbery or detain any creature that comes in your way, to jump over enclosures and walls to steal (people's) horses or oxen, or to decoy away their servants or female attendants. If you do so, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments.
  11. dissolute, promiscuous
  12. ungrounded, baseless
  13. (= ) mad, insane
  14. (medicine) One of the causes of diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
  15. epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng, Fung
Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (風):

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (風), Pronunciation (2/2)

Initial: 幫 (1)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 方鳳切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuŋH/ /pi̯uŋH/ /piuŋH/ /piuŋH/ /puwŋH/ /pĭuŋH/ /piuŋH/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to blow, to fan
  2. to influence, to reform a misguided person through persuasion

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (= ) to mock, to ridicule, to satire
  2. (= ) to advise in mild tone

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かぜ, romaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
  2. airs
  3. style

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phong)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.