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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 182 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI), 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Etymology[edit]

Stroke order
風-order.gif

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *Ĉ.lɯmᴬ (wind), Korean 바람 (baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང (rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流风流, 風騷风骚 - Korean 바람둥이 (baramdung-i).

Cognate with 飛廉飞廉 ("wind god"), 蜚蠊 ("cockroach") (notice how the -r- infix in Old Chinese was preserved through disyllabification, also , ), ("mad, insane"), ("to mock, to advise"), ("sail"). The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Graphically: Phono-semantic compound (形聲):  +  (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲). The stroke inside the enclosure has merged with the 虫, so compound is graphically  + ; compare similar development in (from ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (風), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 幫 (1)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 方戎切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuŋ/ /pi̯uŋ/ /piuŋ/ /piuŋ/ /puwŋ/ /pĭuŋ/ /piuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fēng ‹ pjuwng › /*prəәm/ wind (n.)
fèng ‹ pjuwngH › /*prəәm-s/ blow; criticize

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2921 3 /*plum/
2929 3 /*plums/ 同諷見詩

Definitions[edit]

  1. wind
  2. air, atmosphere
  3. general mood, custom
  4. demeanour
  5. cultivation, moralisation
  6. style, manner
  7. conduct, discipline
  8. power
  9. news, information
  10. love, affection; to become sexually attracted; copulate
  11. dissolute, promiscuous
  12. ungrounded, baseless
  13. (= ) mad, insane
  14. (medicine) One of the causes of diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
  15. epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng, Fung
Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (風):

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (風), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 幫 (1)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 方鳳切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuŋH/ /pi̯uŋH/ /piuŋH/ /piuŋH/ /puwŋH/ /pĭuŋH/ /piuŋH/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to blow, to fan
  2. to influence, to reform a misguided person through persuasion

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (= ) to mock, to ridicule, to satire
  2. (= ) to advise in mild tone

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かぜ, romaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
  2. airs
  3. style

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phong)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.