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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
馬-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Icelandic horse1.jpg

Pictogram (象形); derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base () represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.

Compare also (bird), whose current form is similar (graphically, for claws/legs).

Contrast with 鹿 (deer), which saw a very different development, and 𢊁 (bison) (as in ), which is a hybrid: it has the the legs of 馬 (灬) but the head of 鹿.

馬 馬 馬 馬
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
馬 馬 馬
Clerical script Semi-cursive script Cursive script

Han character[edit]

(radical 187 +0, 10 strokes, cangjie input 尸手尸火 (SQSF), four-corner 71327)

  1. KangXi radical 187

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1433, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+99AC

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (馬), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 明 (4)
Final: 麻
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 莫下切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɣaX/ /maX/ /maX/ /mɯaX/ /maɨX/ /maX/ /maX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ maeX › /*mˤraʔ/ horse

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8715 0 /*mraːʔ/

Noun[edit]

(classifier )

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) horse

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​. Ma

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • "" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Japanese stroke order
馬-jbw.png

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. horse

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word (ume, mume, plum).

The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, horse), Mongol морь (morj, horse), Korean (mal, horse), Mandarin (, horse), and Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- (horse) and descendants such as Irish marc (horse, archaic) or English mare (female horse). More at *mark(')-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(counter , hiragana うま, romaji uma)

  1. a horse
  2. (shogi) a promoted bishop
  3. a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials

Etymology 2[edit]

Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana むま, romaji muma)

  1. (obsolete) a horse
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4372)
      阿志加良能 美佐可多麻波理 可閇理美須 阿例波久江由久 阿良志乎母 多志夜波婆可流 不破乃世伎 久江弖和波由久 牟麻能都米 都久志能佐伎尓 知麻利為弖 阿例波伊波々牟 母呂々々波 佐祁久等麻乎須 可閇利久麻弖尓
    • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
      ふぢはらのときざね、ふなぢなれど、むまのはなむけす。
    • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
      けふはあをむまをおもへど、かひなし。

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ma)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
  • Name (hangeul): ,  (revised: mal, seong, McCune-Reischauer: mal, sŏng, Yale: mal, seng)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Character[edit]

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ngựa)

  1. horse

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

(mứa)

  1. excess

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

(mựa)

  1. (dialectal) don't

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

(mả)

  1. tomb, grave
    • 1916: Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Lục Vân Tiên, lines 921–922
      (tiểu)(đồng)(chẳng)(kịp)(hỏi)(han)/𦣰(nằm)(lăn)(bên)(mả)(khóc)(than)(bồi)(hồi)
      Before the page has a chance to pay a visit, / He throws himself down upon the grave, crying, lamenting, fretting.

Etymology 5[edit]

Verb[edit]

(mở)

  1. to open

References[edit]