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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 196 +10, 21 strokes, cangjie input 十土竹日火 (JGHAF), 人土竹日火 (OGHAF), four-corner 47227, composition)

  1. crane (bird)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1496, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47185
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2026, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4654, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+9DB4

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Yale hok6)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(tazu, tsuru): the Japanese crane, Grus japonensis
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Gruidae
(tsuru): a paper origami crane
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Origami crane
(tsuru): a crane 家紋 (kamon, family crest)
Kanji in this term
たず
Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] By one analysis, this may be a compound of (ta, rice paddy, a common place where cranes can be found) +‎ (tsu, crane? large bird?). The tsu changes to dzu, modern zu due to rendaku (連濁). This tsu is probably the tsu in tsuru (see below).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana たず, romaji tazu, historical hiragana たづ)

  1. (archaic, poetic) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 7, poem #1199); text here
      藻苅舟 奥榜来良之 妹之嶋 形見之浦尓 翔所見
      もかりふね おきこぎくらし いもがしま かたみのうらに たづかけるみゆ
      Mo kari fune / oki kogi kurashi / Imogashima / Katami no ura ni / tazu kakeru miyu
      Rowing the seaweed-gathering boat out to sea and back again, I saw the cranes soaring by Katami inlet on Imogashima
Usage notes[edit]

This reading is now reserved for poetry.[1][2]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
つる
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Given a crane's long neck and how the bird hunts, possibly related to (tsuru, vine); (tsuru, bowstring; musical instrument string); 釣る, 吊る (tsuru, to hang down; to string up; to fish). Given how cranes flock together, possibly related also to 連る (tsuru), older root form of modern verb 連れる (tsureru, to accompany). That said, 連る also appears to ultimately derive from (tsuru, vine).

Likely Altaic cognates include Proto-Turkic *durunja (crane) (whence Turkish turna), Korean 두루미 (durumi, “crane”), Mongolian тогоруу (togoruu, crane)). Compare also Hungarian daru (crane).

The reading tsuru is first seen used to mean a crane (the bird) from the late Heian period. Prior to that time, the only reading used for the bird was tazu. However, the kanji was used in the Man'yōshū as a phonetic ateji for the verb ending -tsuru, suggesting that tsuru may have already existed as an everyday term meaning a crane.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana つる, katakana ツル, romaji tsuru)

  1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
  2. short for 折鶴 (​orizuru): a paper crane, the archetypical origami design
  3. short for 鶴嘴 (​tsuruhashi): a pickaxe
  4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) depicting a crane
  5. a euphemism for white hair
Usage notes[edit]

As with many words that name organisms, this word is often written in katakana when used in biology contexts.

Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. Only found in compounds. Uncertain derivation. May be a truncation of tsuru, or an ancient form of its own. Not used in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji tsu)

  1. (obsolete) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Appears as (zu) in compounds due to rendaku.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
かく
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (hak). Compare modern simplified Mandarin (). Only found in compounds.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かく, romaji kaku)

  1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
Derived terms[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hak) (hangeul , revised hak, McCune-Reischauer hak, Yale hak)

  1. 두루미 (durumi) crane

Mandarin[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Pinyin (he4), Wade-Giles ho4)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Middle Chinese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(*hɑk)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạc)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.