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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 209 +3, 17 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一十 (HLMJ), four-corner 21240)

  1. snore loudly

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1530, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48505
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2066, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4779, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+9F3E

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Jyutping hon4, hon6, Yale hon4, hon6)

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かん
Hyōgaiji
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (snoring).

Only found in compounds. Not used in isolation.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana かん, romaji kan)

  1. snoring
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いびき
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Originally a compound of (i, breath, breathing) +‎ 引き (hiki, pulling, drawing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 引く hiku “to pull, to draw”).[1][2] The hiki changes to biki due to rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いびき, romaji ibiki)

  1. snoring, a snore
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

鼾 + する (hiragana いびきする, romaji ibiki suru)

  1. to snore
Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The verb sense “to snore” is more commonly expressed using the verbal phrases 掻く (ibiki o kaku, literally to make a snoring sound) or 立てる (ibiki o tateru, literally to raise a snore, to put up a snore).

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
くつち
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Apparently the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 鼾つ (kutsutsu, to sleep while snoring, possibly onomatopoeic).[1]

The epilepsy sense may have arisen from how one's breathing may be spastic and vaguely similar to snoring when suffering an epileptic seizure.

However, the conjugation of this putative verb is unknown, and it is only encountered in what would be the nominalized 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of kutsuchi.[1] This leaves open the possibility of alternative origins:

  • May be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, wind, from the way that snoring often happens when breathing through the mouth, or from the way that an epileptic seizure may involve spastic breathing vaguely similar to snoring).
  • The epilepsy sense may be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, blood, from the common occurrence of biting one's tongue during an epileptic seizure).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くつち, romaji kutsuchi)

  1. (archaic, rare) snoring
  2. (archaic, rare) epilepsy
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(han) (hangeul , revised han, McCune-Reischauer han, Yale han)

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Mandarin[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(Pinyin hān (han1), Wade-Giles han1)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(han)

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