ꙗзꙑкъ

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Old East Slavic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *(j)ęzykъ (tongue, language). Cognate with Old Church Slavonic ѩзꙑкъ (językŭ). See also Lithuanian liežùvis, Old Prussian insuwis. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s (tongue).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ꙗзꙑкъ (jazykŭm

  1. a tongue
    • circa 1280, Симоновская псалтирь (Simeon Psalter) 108, verse 2:
      Зане оуста грѣшнагѡ и оуста льстивагѡ ѿверзошасѧ на мѧ: глаголютъ со мною ѧзыкомъ лжи.
      Zane usta grěšnago i usta lĭstivago otŭverzošasę na mę: glagoljutŭ so mnoju ęzykomŭ lži.
      For the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful are opened against me: they have spoken against me with a lying tongue.
  2. a language, speech
    • circa 1420, Ипатьевская летопись (Hypatian Codex), the Primary Chronicle, introduction:
      [] по размѣшеньи же ꙗзꙑкъ . Богъ вѣтромъ великомъ раздруши столпъ []
      [] po razměšenĭi že jazykŭ . Bogŭ větromŭ velikomŭ razdruši stolpŭ []
      [] after the mixing of the tongues God destroyed the tower [of Babel] with the great wind []
  3. nation, folk, tribe
    • circa 1420, Ипатьевская летопись (Hypatian Codex), the Primary Chronicle, introduction:
      В Афетовѣ же части сѣдить Русь . Чюдь . и вси ꙗзꙑцѣ: Мерѧ . Мурома . Всь . Мордва []
      V Afetově že časti sěditĭ Rusĭ . Čjudĭ . i vsi jazycě: Merę . Muroma . Vsĭ . Mordva []
      In the share of Japheth lies Rus, Chud, and all the tribes: Merya, Muroma, Ves, Mordva []
  4. (in the plural) gentiles, pagans, heathens
    • 1056-1057, Остромирово евангелие (Ostromir Gospels), Matthew 10:5:
      Сиѩ посъла Иісусъ, заповѣдавъ имъ глаголѩ: на пѫть ꙗзꙑкъ неидѣте, и въ градъ самареискъ не вънидѣте.
      Siję posŭla Iisusŭ, zapovědavŭ imŭ glagolję: na pǫtĭ jazykŭ neiděte, i vŭ gradŭ samareiskŭ ne vŭniděte.
      These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not.
  5. an interpreter
    • XVI-XVII century, Странник игумена Даниила (Pilgrimage of Hegumen Daniel):
      [] невъзможно бо безъ вожа ходити и безъ ꙗзыка испытати и видѣти всѣхъ тѣхъ свѧтыхъ местъ.
      [] nevŭzmožno bo bezŭ voža xoditi i bezŭ jazyka ispytati i viděti vsěxŭ těxŭ svętyxŭ mestŭ.
      [] for it is impossible without a guide to walk [there] or without an interpreter to see all these holy places.
  6. a prisoner for interrogation, captive that can reveal information on the enemy
    • 1481, Псковская первая летопись (Pskov First Chronicle), s.a. 6849 (1341):
      И они, ѣхавше, ꙗзꙑкъ ꙗша за Холохолномъ и приведоша ко князю Олигерду; и онъ поведа силу велику Нѣмецкиꙗ рати подъ городомъ Изборскомъ []
      I oni, ěxavše, jazykŭ jaša za Xoloxolnomŭ i privedoša ko knjazju Oligerdu; i onŭ poveda silu veliku Německija rati podŭ gorodomŭ Izborskomŭ []
      And they, while getting there, found a native by the Holoholn and brought [him] to Algirdas; and he told about a great force of the Teutons near the Izborsk town []
  7. (law term) witness testimony
    • circa 1280, Пространная версия Русской правды (Vast Edition of the Russian Law) 33:
      [] а то есть не скотъ, нелзѣ рѣчи: не вѣдаю, у кого есми купилъ; по ꙗзꙑку ити до конца []
      [] a to estĭ ne skotŭ, nelzě rěči: ne vědaju, u kogo esmi kupilŭ; po jazyku iti do konca []
      [] for [the servant] is not cattle, and one cannot say: I don't know who I bought him from; but [one has to] according to [the servant's] testimony search for [the real thief] []
  8. (law term) will, testament
    • circa 1280, Пространная версия Русской правды (Vast Edition of the Russian Law) 96:
      [] безъ ꙗзꙑка ли оумреть, то оу кого будеть на дворе бꙑла и кто ю кормилъ, то тому взѧти.
      [] bezŭ jazyka li umretĭ, to u kogo budetĭ na dvore byla i kto ju kormilŭ, to tomu vzęti.
      [] if [the widow] dies with no will, then the one who kept her and fed her shall take [her property].

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Izmail Sreznevskij (1890–1912) Materialy dlja slovarja drevnerusskogo jazyka po pisʹmennym pamjatnikam [Materials for the Dictionary of the Old East Slavic Language According to Written Monuments], in 3 vols, Saint Petersburg (Reprint: Moscow 1989), volume III, page 1647