까지

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Korean[edit]

Particle[edit]

까지 (kkaji)

A special particle (보조사, bojosa) generally meaning until, till, by (a time), up to. 까지 (ggaji) can be used in three situations.

  1. To illustrate the extent of a finished action or situation.
    • 나는 한 시부터 늦게까지 공부했어요.
      Na-neun han si-buteo neutge-ggaji gongbu-haesseoyo.
      "I studied from one o’clock until late."
    • 매리가 부산에서 서울까지 열차로 갔어요.
      Mary-ga Busan-eseo Seoul-ggaji yeolcha-ro gasseoyo.
      "Mary went as far as/to Seoul by train."
  2. To illustrate to what extent an action will continue.
    • 일년 더 걸려도 서울대에 입학할 때까지 공부하기로 결정했어요.
      Illyeon deo geollyeodo Seoul-dae-e ippak-hal tte-ggaji gongbu-hagi-ro gyeoljeong-haesseoyo.
      "Even if it takes one more year I have decided that I will study until I get into Seoul National University."
  3. To illustrate the degree or intensity of a situation.
    • 존이 김치를 이렇게까지 좋아할 줄 몰랐어요.
      John-i gimchi-reul ireokke-ggaji chowahal jul mollasseoyo.
      "I had no idea how much John liked kimchi."
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Usage notes[edit]

Used after nouns, noun phrases, nominalized verbs in (gi) form, as well as adjectives in (ge) form.

See also[edit]

  • 부터 (buteo, from (a time)), 에서 (eseo, from (a place))

References[edit]

  • 표준국어대사전, "까지", URL accessed on 2008-01-03.
  • Daum.net Korean-English Dictionary, "까지", URL accessed on 2008-01-03.