ˇ

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Translingual[edit]

Character  ˇ 
Unicode name CARON
Codepoint U+02C7
ˆ ← Spacing Modifier Letters → ˈ
Character  ̌ 
Unicode name COMBINING CARON
Codepoint U+030C
̋ ← Combining Diacritical Marks → ̍

Etymology[edit]

Obtained by rotating the circumflex: (ˆ) 180°.

Diacritical mark[edit]

ˇ

  1. háček
    1. (in the Czech alphabet, as well as in other Latin alphabets and systems of Cyrillic Romanisation derived from it) generally marking palatalisation
      1. (historically; i.e., in Old Czech) marking palatalisation when written atop a consonant; marking palatalisation of the preceding consonant when written atop ě
      2. (currently; i.e., in Modern Czech) marking partial palatalisation in the case of the postalveolar consonants, full palatalisation in the case of the palatal consonants, and — when written atop ě (arising from the historical confusion of the now-obsolete yat: Ѣ, which Ě transcribes, with the [[w:Iotated A (Cyrillic)|iotified A]]: ) — variously, palatalisation of the preceding consonant, iotation, or idiosyncratically = /mɲɛ/
    2. (in the Romanisation of tonal languages, employed on account of the diacritic’s shape):
      1. indicating the dipping third tone in pinyin
      2. indicating a rising tone in the transliteration of Thai, in the International Phonetic Alphabet, and in the African reference alphabet

Czech[edit]

Diacritical mark[edit]

ˇ

  1. háček
    1. marking partial palatalisation:
      1. C, [ts]Č, [tʃ]
      2. R, [r]Ř, [r̝] (before 1989: [ɼ])
      3. S, [s]Š, [ʃ]
      4. Z, [z]Ž, [ʒ]
    2. marking full palatalisation:
      1. D, [d]Ď, [ɟ]
      2. N, [n]Ň, [ɲ]
      3. T, [t]Ť, [c]
    3. E, [ɛ]Ě:
      1. marking palatalisation of the preceding consonant:
        1. de, [dɛ] (not *ďe), [ɟɛ]
        2. ne, [nɛ] (not *ňe), [ɲɛ]
        3. te, [tɛ] (not *ťe), [cɛ]
      2. marking iotation:
        1. be, [bɛ], [bjɛ]
        2. fe, [fɛ], [fjɛ]
        3. pe, [pɛ], [pjɛ]
        4. ve, [vɛ], [vjɛ]
      3. me, [mɛ] (not *mňe), [mɲɛ]

Latvian[edit]

Diacritical mark[edit]

ˇ

  1. háček
    1. marking partial palatalization:
      1. C, [t͡s]Č, [t͡ʃ]
      2. S, [s]Š, [ʃ]
      3. Z, [z]Ž, [ʒ]

Usage notes[edit]

Letters with háček are considered as separate letters with different names, and listed in the alphabet after the same letters without macron (i.e., č after c, š after s, and ž after z), and also in alphabetized lists (e.g., in dictionaries), like letters with cedilla (ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ), and unlike letters with macrons (ā, ē, ī, ū), which are treated, for alphabetizing purposes, as the same as letters without macrons.


Mandarin[edit]

Diacritical mark[edit]

ˇ

  1. (pinyin) háček, indicating the dipping third tone
    Ǎ, ǎ, Ě, ě, Ǐ, ǐ, Ǒ, ǒ, Ǔ, ǔ, Ǚ, ǚ

Slovak[edit]

Diacritical mark[edit]

ˇ

  1. háček
    1. marking partial palatalisation:
      1. C, [t͡s]Č, [t͡ʃ]
      2. Dz, [d͡z], [d͡ʒ]
      3. S, [s]Š, [ʃ]
      4. Z, [z]Ž, [ʒ]
    2. marking full palatalisation:
      1. D, [d]Ď, [ɟ]
      2. L, [ɫ]Ľ, [ʎ]
      3. N, [n]Ň, [ɲ]
      4. T, [t]Ť, [c]

Usage notes[edit]

The native Slovak term for this diacritic is mäkčeň.