на

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Bulgarian[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • (stressed) IPA(key): /na/
  • (unstressed) IPA(key): /nə/, /nɐ/

Preposition[edit]

на (na)

  1. used to express possession, of, 's
    София е столицата на България. - Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria.
    къщата на баща ми - my father's house
  2. used to indicate the indirect object, to (or it's not translated)
    Дай го на Петър. - Give it to Peter.
    Дай на Петър една книга. - Give Peter a book.
  3. used with nouns formed from intransitive verbs to indicate the subject of the action, of
    пристигането на гостите - the arrival of the guests
    избухването на войната - the outbreak of the war
  4. used with nouns formed from transitive verbs to indicate the direct object of the action, of
    четенето на книгата - the reading of the book
    изобретяването на компютъра - the invention of the computer
  5. used with some verbs such as уча, мириша, etc. to give a description of the action
    Дъхът му миришеше на чесън. - His breath smelt of garlic.
    Опитът ни на бежанци ни научи на много ценни уроци. - Our experience as refugees taught us many valuable lessons.
  6. positioned at the upper surface of, within the limits of, on, on, at, in
    Книгата е на масата. - The book is on the table.
    на двора - in the yard
    на море - at the seaside
    на планина - in the mountain
    на сватба - at a wedding
    на север - in the north
    на улицата - in the street
    на училище съм - to be at school
    седя на масата - to sit at the table
  7. used to show direction, to, on
    Отивам на плажа. - I'm going to the beach.
    на ляво/дясно - on the left/right
  8. used to indicate destination, in the direction of, and arriving at, on, to, for
    отивам на училище - to go to school
    отивам на работа - to go to work
    отивам на почивка - to go on a holiday
    отивам на разходка - to go for a walk
    ходя на лов/риба/ски/покупки - to go hunting/fishing/skiing/shopping
  9. used to introduce a noun phrase that describes the verb, or if it is a linking verb, to describe the subject of the verb
    Времето е на дъжд. - It looks like rain.
    Вятърът духа на пролет. - The wind is blowing in a way that suggests that spring is coming.
    да обичаш на инат - to love stubbornly
  10. used to show a reason or cause, for
    Събрахме се на вечеря. - We gathered for dinner.
    Занесох колелото си на поправка. - I took my bike in for repair.
  11. used with certain time expressions to show when something happens, on, at, in (or it is not translated)
    Роден на 4 юли. - Born on the 4th of July.
    На следващия ден имах изпит. - I had an exam (on) the following day.
    На сутринта имах ужасен махмурлук. - I had a terrible hangover in the morning.
    на залез слънце - at sunset
    на часа - immediately/at once
  12. used to introduce a verbal noun and to indicate that the action described by the verbal noun happens at the same time as another action, while, when
    На тръгване го погледна още веднъж. - When/While he/she was leaving, he/she looked at him once more.
    На връщане минахме по по-кратък път. - When we were coming back we took a shortcut.
  13. used with от to indicate the period over which something happens, to
    от време на време - from time to time
    от ден на ден - from day to day
  14. used to show the circumstances under which something happens, with, in
    спя на запалена лампа - to sleep with the light turned on
    стоя на студено/топло - to stay in a cold/warm place
  15. used to show age, at
    Тя е на 12 години. - She is 12 years old.
    Той се ожени на 28. - He got married at 28.
    на 20-годишна възраст - at the age of 20
  16. used to indicate the distance away from something, at (or it is not translated)
    на една ръка разстояние - at arm's length
    Той стоеше на няколко метра от мен. - He was standing a few metres away from me.
  17. used to indicate the quantity used for buying, selling or measuring something, by
    продавам на метър/литър - to sell by the metre/litre
    работя на парче - to work by the piece
  18. used to separate dimensions when describing the size of something, by
    Лесно е да обърнеш 2 на 2 матрица. - It is easy to invert a 2 by 2 matrix.
    Стаята беше около 4 на 6 фута. - The room was about 4 foot by 6 foot.
    Използвахме 10 на 20 на 30 сантиметрови тухли, за да построим станата. - We used 10 by 20 by 30 cm bricks to build the wall.
  19. used to indicate the rate at which something happens, per, by, a
    два пъти на ден/месец/година - twice a day/mouth/year
    на глава - per capita/head
    Плащат им на час. - They are paid by the hour.
    по пет лева на човек - five levs each/five levs apiece/five levs per head
  20. used to indicate the parts into which something is divided, in, into, by
    разделям на две - to divide in two
    режа на парчета - to cut in/into pieces
    6 делено на 2 прави 3. - 6 divided by 2 equals 3.
  21. used to show how or in what way something is done, by, in
    Учениците пристигнаха на малки групи. - The students arrived in small groups.
    на голо - on/over one's bare skin/next to the skin
    на дело - in practice
    на теория - in theory
    на ръка - by hand
    на дребно - retail
    на едро - wholesale
    на кръст - crosswise
    на шега - for fun
  22. used to indicate a change in state, to, into
    ставам на прах - to turn in/into dust
    счупвам се на парчета - to break in/into pieces
    преструвам се на някого - to pretend to be someone/to impersonate someone
    правя се на болен - to feign illness
  23. used to indicate an instrument
    работя на машина - to run/operate a machine
    свиря на пиано - to play the piano
    гледам на карти - to fortune tell using a deck of cards
    гледам на кафе - to fortune tell using coffee
    броя на пръсти - to count along one's fingers
  24. used to indicate a game
    играя на шах - to play chess
  25. near, close to
    Суматранските тигри са на изчезване. - Sumatran tigers are near extinction.
    Припасите ни са на свършване. - Our supplies are running low.
  26. used to indicate a language, a way of speaking, etc., in
    Кажи го на английски. - Say it in English.
    Той говореше на висок глас. - He spoke in a loud voice.

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

на (na)

  1. (informal) used when giving something to someone, here you are, take it
    На ти парите! - Take the money!
    На ти! - Take that!
  2. (informal) used to express unexpectedness
    Говорим за Мария и на — тя насреща. - Speaking of Maria and here she is.

Old Church Slavonic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en-. Cognates Ancient Greek ἀνά (ana, on, up).

Preposition[edit]

на (na)

  1. onto, on
  2. into, in

Descendants[edit]

  • Bulgarian: на (na)
  • Czech: na
  • Polish: na
  • Russian: на (na)
  • Serbo-Croatian:
    Cyrillic: на
    Roman: na
  • Slovak: na
  • Slovene: na

Russian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂neh₃.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

на (na)

accusative case (movement towards):

  1. onto, on
    на стол
    na stol
    onto the table
  2. to, toward
    на по́чту
    na póčtu
    to the post office
  3. into, in
  4. (duration, value, purpose) for
    на что?
    na čto?
    what for?
  5. about, for
    он объявил программу на следующий день
    on obʺjavil programmu na sledujuščij denʹ
    He announced a program for the next day

prepositional case (position on):

  1. on, upon
    на столе́
    na stolé
    on the table
  2. in, at
    на по́чте
    na póčte
    at the post office
  3. with, for

Particle[edit]

на (na)

  1. here! (said when giving someone something, i.e., "take it!")

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂no(H). Compare на̏д.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

на (Latin spelling na)

  1. (with accusative) to, on, onto (with change of position, answering the question kùda)
    ићи на концерт — to go to a concert
    ставити књигу на сто(л) — to put a book on the table
  2. (with locative) on, at, in (without change of position, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ)
    књига је на столу — the book is on the table
    бити на концерту — to be at the concert
    бити на улици — to be in the street
  3. (with accusative) by, for, at (in expressions with time)
    отићи некуда на пар дана — to go somewhere for a couple of days
    на љето/лето — next summer, the following summer
    на вр(иј)еме — on time
    бити плаћен на сат — to be paid by the hour
  4. (with accusative) to indicate a source of power or energy
    подморница на атомски погон — nuclear-powered submarine

Interjection[edit]

на! (Latin spelling na!)

  1. Here you are! Take it!
  2. Help yourself!

Tajik[edit]

Adverb[edit]

Dari نه
Iranian Persian نه
Tajik на (na)

на (na)

  1. not
  2. (informal) no

See also[edit]