-and

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -and, -end, -ant, -nd, from Old English -ende, -ande, present participle ending of verbs, and Old English -end, -nd, agent ending, both from Proto-Germanic *-andz (present participle suffix), from Proto-Indo-European *-anto-. More at -ing.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-and

  1. (Now chiefly dialectal, Scotland) Used to form the present participle of verbs, equivalent to -ing.
    livand, nurischand, ravand, snipand
  2. (rare or no longer productive) A suffix of Anglo-Saxon origin forming adjectives from verbs analogous to -ing.
    waniand, blatant, farand, flippant, gainand, rampant, warkand
  3. (no longer productive) A noun suffix, usually denoting agency, similar to -er.
    errand, thousand, weasand
    friend, fiend, bond, husband, healand

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin gerundive termination -andus, -endus. More at -end.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-and

  1. A suffix forming nouns denoting patients or recipients of actions, such as compiland.
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-and

  1. The archaic suffix of future tense.

Usage notes[edit]

Member of the following suffix cluster:

  • -and is added to back vowel verbs
  • -end is added to front vowel verbs