-er

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Contents

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ere (agent suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz (agent suffix). Usually thought to have been borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -er, Low German -er, German -er, Swedish -are, Icelandic -ari, Gothic -𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍃 (-areis). Compare also Ancient Greek -ήριος (-ḗrios), Old Church Slavonic -арь (-arĭ).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -'er (following an abbreviation, or sometimes following a number)

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb; used to form an agent noun.
    reader, cooker, computer, runner-up, do-gooder
  2. (added to a noun denoting an occupation) Person whose occupation is (the noun).
    astrologer, cricketer, trumpeter
  3. (added to a number, measurement or noun denoting a quantified set) A name for a person or thing that is based on a number (with or without a noun).
    sixer, six-footer, three-wheeler, first-grader
  4. (slang, chiefly entertainment, with few limitations) Used to form nouns shorter than more formal synonyms.
    percenter (commission agent); one-hander (one-man show); oater (a Western-themed movie)
  5. (informal, added to a noun) One who enjoys.
    Tooners lined up for tickets to Toy Story.
  6. (derogatory, added to nouns) Person who subscribes to a particular conspiracy theory or unorthodox belief.
    anti-vaxxer, birther, flat-Earther, 9/11 truther
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix may be used to form an agent noun of many verbs. In compound or phrasal verbs, the suffix usually follows the verb component (as in passerby and runner-up) but is sometimes added at the end, irrespective of the position of the verb component (do-gooder) or is added to both components for humorous effect (washer-upper).
  • The entertainment slang sense is sometimes referred to as the Variety -er.
Translations[edit]

The translations below are a guide only. For more precise translations, see specific words ending with this suffix.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ware (suffix denoting residency or meaning "inhabitant of"), from Proto-Germanic *warjaz (defender, inhabitant), from Proto-Indo-European *wer- (to close, cover, protect, save, defend). Cognate with Dutch -er, German -er, Swedish -are.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a proper noun) Suffix denoting a resident or inhabitant of (the place denoted by the proper noun); used to form a demonym.
    New Yorker, Londoner, Dubliner
  2. Suffix denoting residency in or around a district, area, or region.
    islander, highlander, eastender
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -er, -re, from Old English -ru (plural suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-izō (plural suffix). Cognate with Dutch -er (plural ending), German -er (plural ending). See also -ren.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (no longer productive) Suffix used to form the plural of a small number of English nouns.
    childer, calver, lamber, linder ("loins")
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Representing various noun-suffixes in Old French and Anglo-Norman, variously -er, -ier and -ieur, from Latin -aris, -arius, -atorium.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. person or thing connected with
    butler

Etymology 5[edit]

From Old English -ra, from Proto-Germanic *-izô or Proto-Germanic *-ōzô (a derivative of Etymology 6, below).

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to certain adjectives and adverbs, now especially short ones) more; used to form the comparative.
    longer, bigger, faster, sooner, simpler
Usage notes[edit]
  • (more; used to form the comparative): Adjectives whose comparatives are formed using the suffix -er also form their superlatives using the suffix -est.
    • Final -y preceded by a consonant becomes -i- when the suffix -er or -est is added.
      easyeasiereasiest; graygrayergrayest
    • When the stress is on the final (or only) syllable of the adjective, and this syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled when the suffix is added.
      dimdimmerdimmest
    • The suffixes -er and -est may be used to form the comparative and superlative of most adjectives and adverbs that have one syllable and some that have two syllables.
      hothotterhottest; fastfasterfastest; funnyfunnierfunniest
    • Some adjectives and adverbs form their comparatives and superlatives irregularly:
      goodbetterbest; farfartherfarthest, or farfurtherfurthest, depending on the meaning
    • The comparatives and superlatives of other adverbs and adjectives that have two syllables, most longer adjectives and adverbs, and adjectives that are participles are formed with more and most.
      rigidmore rigidmost rigid; enormousmore enormousmost enormous; burntmore burntmost burnt; freezingmore freezingmost freezing
    • If in doubt, use more to form the comparative and most to form the superlative; for example, thirsty may become thirstier and thirstiest, but more thirsty and most thirsty are also acceptable.
  • Words ending with -ng are pronounced /ŋ/ by most dialects instead of /ŋɡ/. However, when -er or -est is added to an adjective, the /ɡ/ appears (in most dialects).
    long (IPA(key): /lɒŋ/) → longer (IPA(key): /ˈlɒŋ.ɡə(ɹ)/); young (IPA(key): /jʌŋ/) → youngest (IPA(key): /ˈjʌŋ.ɡɪst/)
Translations[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

From Old English -or, from Proto-Germanic *-ōz.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to certain adverbs) more; used to form the comparative.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

From Middle English -eren, -ren, -rien, from Old English -erian, -rian, from Proto-Germanic *-rōną. Cognate with West Frisian -erje, Dutch -eren, German -eren, -ern, Danish -re, Swedish -ra.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a verb or imitative sound) frequently; used to form frequentative verbs.
    twitter, clamber, bicker, mutter, wander, flutter, flicker, slither, smother, sputter
Synonyms[edit]
  • (used to form frequentative): -le
Translations[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

Representing Anglo-Norman -er, the infinitive verbal ending.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a verb) instance of (the verbal action); used to form nouns from verbs, especially in legal terms.
    disclaimer, misnomer, remitter, rebutter

Etymology 9[edit]

From Middle English -er, -ere (diminutive suffix). Compare -el.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to a verb or noun) used to form diminutives.
    shiver < shive
    sliver < slive
    splinter < splint

Etymology 10[edit]

Originally Rugby School slang.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Used to form slang or colloquial equivalents of words.
    soccer, rugger, brekkers, Radder, divvers
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch -er.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. -er

Breton[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. person or thing that (does the action indicated by the root); used to form an agent noun.

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -arius.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er m

  1. Used to form nouns meaning the location or object where something is usually found.
  2. Used to form nouns meaning a plant which is cultivated to produce something.
  3. Used to form nouns meaning the purpose of something or an object used for that purpose.

Usage notes[edit]

The equivalent suffix -era can be used to form feminine nouns with these meanings, but usually only the masculine or feminine form will be found in Catalan.

Suffix[edit]

-er m (feminine -era)

  1. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to an inhabitant of somewhere.
  2. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to engaging in a profession.
  3. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to being prone to some activity or characteristic.

Usage notes[edit]

Because these senses are used to form adjectives of two forms or nouns referring to animate objects, both the masculine and feminine forms will be found in Catalan, with the lemma entry found at the masculine form.

See also[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -aar.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-er m (plural -ers, feminine -ster)

  1. appended to the stem of a verb, it yields a noun which signifies the subject who performs the action of that verb (see agent noun)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. appended to an adjective, it yields its comparative form
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere (see etymology 1), from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Suffix forming nouns denoting male inhabitants or residents of a place.
    Een Amsterdammer
    A (male) inhabitant of Amsterdam
  2. Suffix forming adjectives denoting something originating from a place.
    Het Groninger museum
    The museum of Groningen
Synonyms[edit]
  • (male inhabitant): -aar
  • (origin): -s
Antonyms[edit]
  • (male inhabitant): -se (female inhabitant)

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 175

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin -are.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a suffix, which in Proto-Germanic time was borrowed from Latin -arius. Cognate with English -er, Dutch -er and -aar.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forming agent nouns from verbs with the sense of ‘person or thing which does’, suffixed to the first-person singular indicative present form from which the E is dropped.
    arbeiten 'to work'; (ich) arbeit(e) + -er '-er' -> Arbeiter 'worker'

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 175

Middle Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. -er. Forms the comparative of adjectives.

Derived terms[edit]

See Category:Middle Dutch adjective comparative forms.

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Middle French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin -are.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs

Usage notes[edit]

  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -ari.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb
  2. (added to place names) person or thing that originates in the place indicated by the place name
  3. (added to numbers) order, position, value or similar indicated by the numeral

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Alternative form of -or.

Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin -āre

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. suffix used to form infinitives of first conjugation verbs

See also[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. The infinitive of the second class (-er class) of verbs.

Conjugation[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ere

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. The infinitive suffix for many verbs.

Conjugation[edit]

See: Appendix:Spanish verbs in -er

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. One of two suffices for indefinite plural for nouns of the third declension (common and neuter); the second one is -r
  2. Suffix for present tense, active voice, indicative mood for one of the groups of Swedish verbs

See also[edit]

plural suffix
present tense suffix

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Turkic *er, from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man). See er.

Suffix[edit]

-er

  1. Added to verbs to form nouns with the sense of "person or thing which does the verb".
    Example: kes = cut, keser = kes-er = adz or adze (cutter)
  2. A Turkic noun-forming suffix frequently denoting a "follower of a tribe" or simply a "Tribesman" with the sense of "brave or noble warrior". Vowel formation (-ar, -er) depends on the prefix.
    Example 1: Tatar = Tat people + -ar = Tribesman of the 'Tat people'
    Example 2: Azer = Az people + -er = Tribesman of the 'Az people'