- 1 Breton
- 2 French
- 3 Hungarian
- 4 Ido
- 5 Portuguese
- 6 Romanian
- 7 Spanish
- suffix forming the formal second-person singular or second-person plural (vous) present indicative of an -er verb.
- suffix forming the second-person plural imperative.
- (verbal suffix): Member of the following suffix cluster:
- -z is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
- -oz is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -az is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ez is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -öz is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -áz is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- suffix forming the imperative
- -ness (appended to adjectives to form nouns meaning "the state of ...", "the quality of ...", or "the measure of ...")
- Forms nouns and adjectives of nationality:
Probably from a Vulgar Latin *-idiō or *-izō, form of the suffix *-idiāre or *-izāre, ultimately from Ancient Greek -ίζειν (-izein), but used as an infix in Romanian conjugated forms of verbs (similarly to how Spanish and Portuguese use the unrelated -ecer from Latin -escere, from -escō (as in parecer, padecer, merecer, etc)). The suffix does not appear in the infinitive form in Romanian, however. The Latin *-idiāre or *-izāre has also led to -eggiare in Italian, -ear in Spanish and Portuguese, -ejar in Catalan and Occitan, and -oyer in French. The Aromanian equivalent is -edzu. Cf. also the Romanian suffix later borrowed ultimately from the same source (through French), -iza.
- used with a stem to form the first-person singular present of some -a (first conjugation) verbs. E.g. lucrez from lucra, durez from dura, frânez from frâna, vânez from vâna.
- suffix forming many Spanish surnames: Cortez, Enríquez, Godínez, Gómez, Gutiérrez, Hernández, Ibáñez, López, Ordóñez, Pérez, Ramírez, Rodríguez, Sánchez.
Spanish patronymics are often formed by substituting "-ez" for a final "o" in the first name of the father of the person whose surname is so formed. Thus, the son of Hernando becomes Hernández, the son of Rodrigo becomes Rodríguez, and the son of Sancho becomes Sánchez. Note that since when written without an accent mark, words ending in -z are final-syllable stressed and words ending in -o are not, this means that most often an accent mark has to be added after adding this suffix to retain the stressed syllable of the original word.
For some Spanish patronymics, the suffix is not -ez but -iz or -oz, as in Ortiz, Muñiz, Muñoz.
-ez (plural -eces)
- Suffix forming nouns of feminine gender from nouns and adjectives, denoting "state of" (similar to English -hood, -ness, -ty).