-si

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Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: -si
  • Pronounced as written. The first syllables of Finnish words are always stressed, so no emphasis on this.

Suffix[edit]

-si (appended to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with or without sinun (the genitive of the personal pronoun sinä), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun your (addressing one person; in archaic English: thy):
    • (sinun) kirjasi = your book
  2. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without sinun (the genitive of the personal pronoun sinä), you (addressing one person; in archaic English: thee):
  3. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "you" (addressing one person); appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause:
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "you" (addressing one person); appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause:
  5. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "you" (addressing one person), appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive:
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "you" (addressing one person), appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular:
    • Tehtyäsi läksysi (sinä) kuulit laukauksen ulkoa.
      • (After) having done / After doing your homework, you heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "you" (addressing one person), appended to the long first infinitive:
  8. (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "you" (addressing one person).
  9. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "you" (addressing one person).

Usage notes[edit]

  • The possessive suffix -si is compulsory in standard Finnish. The genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun "sinä" before the main word can, depending on the context, be sometimes omitted in written language if the sentence remains fluent. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -si is very rare and only the genitive form "sinun" (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
  • The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to standard Finnish, not to spoken Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Italian[edit]

Crystal Clear filesystem trashcan full.png This entry has been nominated for deletion(+)
Please see that page for discussion and justifications beyond the initial comment of: "Firstly, this is not a suffix. Secondly, the usage notes in si have already explained it well enough.". Feel free to edit this entry as normal, though do not remove the {{rfd}} until the debate has finished.

Etymology[edit]

From si (oneself). Cognate with Spanish se, which also acts as a suffix; and with Portuguese se, which is hyphenated to the verb stem.

Suffix[edit]

-si

  1. Appended to an infinitive to indicate that it is a reflexive verb.
    dare (to give) → darsi (to give oneself; to devote)
    vendere (to sell) → vendersi (to sell oneself; to prostitute)
    servire (to serve) → servirsi (to serve oneself; to make use of)

Usage notes[edit]

The final -e of the original infinitive is removed :

-are-arsi
-ere-ersi
-ire-irsi

Where the verb ends in -rre, the final re is removed, leaving behind just an -r:

introdurre (to enter) → introdursi (to enter oneself; to sneak into)

In any case, after the suffixation, there is only a single r and no vowels immediately before -si.


Old Irish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-si

  1. her (emphatic)
  2. you (plural; emphatic)
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 16d8
      Bíuu-sa oc irbáig dar far cenn-si fri Maccidóndu.
      I am boasting about you to the Macedonians.

Usage notes[edit]

Added to nouns to emphasize a possessor, to verbs to emphasize a subject, and to inflected prepositions to emphasize an object, in the 3rd person singular feminine or the 2nd person plural.

Related terms[edit]


Quechua[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-si

  1. Evidential suffix, second-hand information. Indicates that the speaker has not directly experienced the information at hand; hearsay
    Chay llaqta sumaqsi.
    (I hear that) that town is pretty.
    Parachkansi.
    (I heard that) it is raining.
    Anchapsi waqachinki wamrayta.
    (They say that) you make my child cry excessively.

See also[edit]


Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-si (-си)

  1. Third person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a vowel. It has the same meaning as "uning" (its) placed before a noun.
    • Bu ruchkasi.
      "This is its ball pen."