Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists

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Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English Dutch Afrikaans German
1 I ik ek ich
2 you (singular) jij, je (informal)
u (formal)
jy (informal)
u (formal)
du (informal)
Sie (formal)
3 he hij hy er
4 we wij, we
(oblique case: ons)
ons wir
(oblique case: uns)
5 you (plural) jullie
(regional, archaic) gij
u (formal)
julle
u (formal)
ihr
Sie (formal)
6 they zij, ze hulle sie
7 this deze, dit dié, hierdie dieses
8 that die, dat dat, daardie jenes
9 here hier, her hier hier
10 there daar, der daar da, dort
11 who wie wie wer
12 what wat wat was
13 where waar waar wo
14 when wanneer, (archaic) wen wanneer wann, wenn
15 how hoe hoe wie
16 not niet nie nicht
17 all al, alle alle all, alle
18 many veel, menig baie, veel, menigte viel, manch
19 some enkele, sommige, zekere, enige party, sekere, sommige einige
20 few weinig min wenig
21 other ander ander ander
22 one een een ein
23 two twee twee zwei
24 three drie drie drei
25 four vier vier vier
26 five vijf vyf fünf
27 big groot groot gross
28 long lang lank, lang lang
29 wide breed, wijd breed, wyd breit, weit
30 thick dik dik, dig dick
31 heavy zwaar swaar schwer
32 small klein klein klein
33 short kort kort kurz
34 narrow nauw, smal nou, smal schmal
35 thin dun dun dünn
36 woman vrouw vrou Frau
37 man
(adult male)
man man Mann
38 man
(human being)
mens mens Mensch
39 child
(a youth)
kind kind Kind
40 wife vrouw, echtgenote, (archaic) gade vrou, eggenoot, gade Frau
41 husband man, echtgenoot, (archaic) gade man, eggenoot, gade Mann
42 mother moeder moeder Mutter
43 father vader vader Vater
44 animal dier dier Tier
45 fish vis vis Fisch
46 bird vogel voël Vogel
47 dog hond hond Hund
48 louse luis luis Laus
49 snake slang slang Schlange
50 worm worm wurm Wurm
51 tree boom boom Baum
52 forest woud, bos woud, bos Wald
53 stick
(of wood)
stok stok Stock
54 fruit fruit, vrucht vrug Frucht
55 seed zaad saad Same
56 leaf blad blaar Blatt
57 root wortel wortel Wurzel
58 bark
(of tree)
schors, bast bas Rinde
59 flower bloem blom Blume
60 grass gras gras Gras
61 rope touw, koord tou, koord Tau
62 skin
(of a person)
vel, huid vel Haut
63 meat
(as in flesh)
vlees vleis Fleisch
64 blood bloed bloed Blut
65 bone been been Bein
66 fat
(noun)
vet vet fett
67 egg ei eier Ei
68 horn hoorn, horen horing Horn
69 tail staart, (archaic) tagel stert Schwanz
70 feather
(rather not down)
veer, veder veer Feder
71 hair haar haar Haar
72 head kop, hoofd kop, hoof Kopf, Haupt
73 ear oor oor Ohr
74 eye oog oog Auge
75 nose neus neus Nase
76 mouth mond, (of rivers) muide mond Mund
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
tand tand Zahn
78 tongue tong tong Zunge
79 fingernail nagel, vingernagel nael, vingernael Fingernagel
80 foot voet voet Fuß
81 leg been been Bein
82 knee knie knie Knie
83 hand hand hand Hand
84 wing vleugel, (poetic) vlerk vlerk Flügel
85 belly buik, maag, pens buik, maag, pens Bauch, Magen
86 guts ingewanden ingewande Eingeweide
87 neck nek nek Nacken
88 back rug, (in compounds, archaic) bak rug Rücken
89 breast borst bors Brust
90 heart hart hart Herz
91 liver lever lewer Leber
92 to drink drinken drink trinken
93 to eat eten eet essen
94 to bite bijten byt beißen
95 to suck zuigen suig saugen
96 to spit spuwen, spugen spoeg spucken
97 to vomit kotsen, overgeven, braken kots, opgooi, braak kotzen, erbrechen
98 to blow
(as wind)
waaien, blazen, (archaic) blaaien waai, blaas blasen
99 to breathe ademen, ademhalen asemhaal atmen
100 to laugh lachen lag lachen
101 to see zien sien sehen
102 to hear horen hoor hören
103 to know
(a fact)
weten weet wissen
104 to think denken dink denken
105 to smell
(sense odor)
ruiken, rieken ruik riechen
106 to fear vrezen, (archaic) vruchten vrees fürchten
107 to sleep slapen slaap schlafen
108 to live leven lewe leben
109 to die sterven, doodgaan sterf, doodgaan sterben
110 to kill doden, doodmaken dood, doodmaak töten
111 to fight vechten veg fechten
112 to hunt
(transitive)
jagen jag jagen
113 to hit treffen, slaan tref, slaan schlagen
114 to cut knippen, snijden knip, sny kneifen, schneiden
115 to split splijten, klieven, (archaic) spalten kloof spalten
116 to stab
(or stick)
steken steek stechen
117 to scratch
(an itch)
krabben krap greifen
118 to dig graven grawe graben
119 to swim zwemmen swem schwimmen
120 to fly vliegen vlieg fliegen
121 to walk stappen, wandelen, (in the Netherlands only) lopen stap, wandel, loop laufen
122 to come komen kom kommen
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
liggen liegen
124 to sit zitten sit sitzen
125 to stand staan, rechtstaan staan, (action) opstaan stehen
126 to turn
(change direction)
draaien draai drehen
127 to fall
(as in drop)
vallen val fallen
128 to give geven gee geben
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
houden, vasthouden hou, vashou halten
130 to squeeze knijpen knyp kneifen
131 to rub wrijven vryf reiben
132 to wash wassen was waschen
133 to wipe vegen vee weinen
134 to pull trekken trek drücken
135 to push duwen, stoten stoot, druk stoßen
136 to throw werpen, gooien, smijten gooi werfen
137 to tie binden, knopen bind, knoop binden, knüpfen
138 to sew naaien naai nähen
139 to count tellen tel zählen
140 to say zeggen sagen
141 to sing zingen sing singen
142 to play spelen speel spielen
143 to float zweven (in the air), drijven (on water) sweef, dryf schweben
144 to flow vloeien, vlieden vloei fließen
145 to freeze vriezen vries frieren
146 to swell zwellen swel schwellen
147 sun zon son Sonne
148 moon maan maan Mond
149 star ster ster Stern
150 water water water Wasser
151 to rain regen reën Regen
152 river rivier, stroom rivier Fluss
153 lake meer
("zee" means "sea")
meer See
("Meer" means "sea")
154 sea
(as in ocean)
zee
("meer" means "lake")
see Meer
("See" means "lake")
155 salt zout sout Salz
156 stone steen, (archaic) klip klip Stein, Klippe
157 sand zand sand Sand
158 dust stof stof Staub
159 earth
(as in soil)
aarde, grond grond Erde, Grund
160 cloud wolk wolk Wolke
161 fog mist, nevel mis Nebel
162 sky lucht lug Luft
163 wind
(as in breeze)
wind, bries wind, briesie Wind
164 snow sneeuw sneeu Schnee
165 ice ijs ys Eis
166 smoke rook rook Rauch
167 fire vuur vuur Feuer
168 ash as as Asche
169 to burn
(intransitive)
branden brand brennen, branden
170 road weg, pad pad Weg, Pfad
171 mountain berg berg Berg
172 red rood, (informal) rooi rooi rot
173 green groen groen grün
174 yellow geel, (archaic) geluw geel gelb
175 white wit wit weiß
176 black zwart swart schwarz
177 night nacht nag Nacht
178 day
(daytime)
dag dag Tag
179 year jaar jaar Jahr
180 warm
(as in weather)
warm warm warm
181 cold
(as in weather)
koud koud kalt
182 full vol vol voll
183 new nieuw nuut, nuwe neu
184 old oud oud alt
185 good goed goed gut
186 bad slecht sleg schlecht
187 rotten
(as, a log)
rot, verrot vrot rotten
188 dirty vuil vuil schmutzig
189 straight recht, rechtuit reguit recht
190 round rond rond rund
191 sharp
(as a knife)
scherp skerp scharf
192 dull
(as a knife)
stomp, bot stomp stumpf
193 smooth glad glad glatt
194 wet nat nat nass
195 dry
(adjective)
droog, dor droog, dor trocken, dürr
196 right
(correct)
juist, recht, correct reg, korrek recht
197 near na, bij, nabij, dichtbij naby dicht, bei
198 far ver ver fern
199 right
(side)
rechts regs rechts
200 left
(side)
links links links
201 at aan, te, bij by, te, op an, zu, bei
202 in in, binnen in, binne in
203 with
(accompanying)
met met mit
204 and en, (archaic) ende en und
205 if als, indien as, indien als
206 because omdat, want, (archaic) dewijl, daar omdat, want um, weil, da
207 name naam naam Name
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription