Appendix:Cognate sets for Austronesian languages

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Below are cognate sets for various Austronesian languages.

Numerals[edit]

Proto- Austronesian Malayo-Sumbawan Northwest Sumatran Modern Javanese Malayo-Sumbawan Malayo-Sumbawan Timor-Babar Philippine Malagasy Oceanic English meaning
Malay Batak (Toba) Balinese Sundanese Madurese Sawu Toraja Acehnese Tetum Ilokano Pangasinan Tagalog Hiligaynon Kapampangan Fijian Proto-Polynesian Māori Hawaiian Rapanui
*(e)sa/isa satu sada siji, Setunggal besik, Asiki hiji, eka settong, tonggal ahi misa sa ida maysa isa, sakey isá isa metung isa, iray dua *taha tahi kahi tahi one
*duSa dua dua loro, Kalih dua, Kalih duwe dua due dua duwa rua dua dua, duara dalawá duha adua, adwa roa rua *rua rua lua rua two
*telu tiga tolu telu, Tiga telu, Tiga tilu tello tallu tallu lhèe tolu tallo talo, talora tatló tatlo atlu telo tolu *tolu toru kolu toru three
*S(e)pat empat opat papat, Sekawan papat, Catur opat empa apa a'pa' peuet haat uppat apat, apatira apat apat apat efatra va *faa whā ha ha four
*lima lima lima lima, Gangsal lima, Panca lima lema' lami lima limong lima lima lima, limara limá lima lima dimy lima *lima rima lima rima five
*(e)nem enam onom nem nem, nemnem, sad genep enem anna annan nam neen innem anem, anemera anim anum anam enina ono *ono ono ono ono six
*pitu tujuh pitu pitu pepitu, sapta tujuh petto' pitu pitu tujôh hitu pito pito, pitora pitó pito pitu fito vitu *fitu whitu hiku hitu seven
*walu lapan uwalu wolu aktus, Astha dalapan bellu' aru karua lapan ualu walo walo, walora waló walo walu valo walu *walu waru walu va'u eight
*Siwa sembilan sia sanga sia, asia, Sanga salapan sanga' heo kasera sikureueng sia siam siam, siamira siyám siyam siyam sivy ciwa *hiwa iwa iwa iva nine
*(sa)-puluq sepuluh sampulu sepuluh, Sedasa dasa, adasa sapuluh sapolo henguru sang pulo siplôh sanulu sangapulo samplo, samplora sampû pulo apulu folo tini *ngafulu, *hangafulu tekau (archaic: ngahuru, hangahuru) 'umi angahuru ten
*(sa)RaCus seratus saratus satus, satus saratus saratos hengahu saratu' sireutôh atus ida sangagasut sanlasos (isan lasos) isáng daán gatus (isa ka gatus) metung a dalan zato dua na drau *rau rau hanele hanere a hundred
*(sa)Ribu seribu saribu sewu siu sarebu saebu hetapa sang sa'bu siribèe rihun ida sangaribu sanlibo (isan libo) isáng libo libo (isa ka libo) metung a libu arivo dua nou dolu *mano, *afe mano kaukani piere a thousand

Pronouns[edit]

Examples from various languages are given below:

Proto- Austronesian Ilokano Pangasinan Malay Batak (Toba) Javanese Balinese Sundanese Madurese Sawu Toraja Acehnese Tetun Tagalog Hiligaynon Kapampangan Malagasy Fijian Māori Hawaiian Rapanui: English meaning
*aku ak, siak siak aku, saya ahu nyong, aku, Kula, DALEM icang, Titiang urang, kuring, Abdi sengkok, Kaule, ABDINA ya aku kèe, ulôn, ulôntuwan ha'u ako ako i aku, y acu, yacu, yaku izaho/ahy au, yau au, ahau a'u au/kooku I, me
*(e)kau sika sika kamu, engkau, Anda ho kowe, sampeyan, Panjenengan, cai, nyai, Ida, Dane, Iratu maneh, Anjeuna (Anjeun) be'na, Sampiyan, Panjenengan (?) mu iko, kamu kah, gata, droeneuh o, ITA ikaw ikaw ika, ica ianao/anao o, iko koe 'oe koe/toau you, singular

Nouns[edit]

Proto- Austronesian Ilokano Pangasinan Malay Batak (Toba) Javanese Balinese Sundanese Madurese Sawu Toraja Acehnese Tetun Tagalog Hiligaynon Kapampangan Malagasy Fijian Māori Hawaiian Rapanui English meaning
*pulau poro pulo pulau pulo pulo nusa, pulau pulau, nusa polo, daret rai pulo nusa, illa pulo~, isla polo, isla pulu nosy yanuyanu motu moku motu island
*tenem laut dayat laut, lautan, samudra laut segara pasih, Segara laut, sagara tasek, sagare lau tasik laôt tasi dagat, laot "sea far from land" dagat dayat ranomasina (lit. "salty water"?) wai tui (lit. "king water") tai, moana kai, moana vai kava (lit. "salty water") sea
*daNum danum danom air aek banyu, Toya yeh, Tirta, Toya cai aing ai (the same word is used for 'fire' and 'water') uai ie bee tubig tubig danum rano wai wai wai vai water
*Sikan ikan, sida ikan, sira ikan dengke iwak be, Mina, Ulam lauk, ikan juko' nadu'u bale eungkôt ikan isda isda asan tsondro ika ika i'a ika fish
*Sular uleg oleg ular ular ula lelipi, Ula oray olar doboho ula' uleue samea ahas man-ug, bitin ulad (caterpillar), ubingan (snake) bibilava, menarana gata ngata (snail) snake
*qayam billit, manok( chicken) manok burung, ayam (chicken) pidong manuk, Peksi kedis, Peksi manuk mano dowila dassi cicèm manu, fuik ibon, manok (chicken) pispis, manok (chicken) manuk vorona manumanu vuka manu manu manu bird
*asu aso aso anjing biang asu, Segawon icing, Asu anjing pate' ngaka asu asu aso ido asu alika koli kurī 'ilio 'uri dog
*bunga sabong bulaklak bunga bunga kembang, Sekar bunga, Sekar kembang, kusuma kembang, Sekar bunga bunga bungong ai-funan bulaklak bulak sampaga vonikazo senikau pua pua tiare flower
*buaq bunga, prutas (Spanish) bunga buah woh buah, Woh buah buwe wue boh ai-fuan prutas [Spanish], bungang-kahoy prutas, bunga bunga voankazo vuanikau ("kau"= "tree") hua hua fruit
*nyiuR niug niog kelapa harambiri krambil, klapa nyuh, Kelapa kalapa nyior nyiu kaluku u nuu niyog, buko niyog, lubi, buko, makapuno ngungut coco niu niu (pole) niu coconut
*puti saba ponti pisang pisang gedhang, Pisang biu, Pisang cau geddhang womu'u punti pisang hudi saging saging sagin akondro jaina mai'a maika banana
*apuy apuy apoy api api geni, Latu api, Geni seuneu apoy ai api apuy ahi apoy kalayo api afo buka ahi ahi ahi fire
*(maCa) adraw init (init also = heat; aldaw = day) agew matahari / mentari (from mata = eye, hari = day) mata ni ari srengenge, Surya matanai, Surya panonpoe, srangenge are mada loto allo mata uroe loro araw adlaw aldo masoandro (maso = eye, andro = day) siga (matanisiga, matanivanua) la ra'a sun
*bulaN bulan bulan bulan bulan rembulan, Wulan bulan, Sasih bulan, Sasih bulen waru bulan buleuen fulan buwan bulan bulan volana vula marama mahina mahina moon, also month
*bituqen bituen bitoen bintang bintang lintang bintang bentang bintang moto bintoen bintang fitun bituin,tala bitu-on batuin kintana kalokalo whetū hoku hetu'u star
*Cau tao too orang jolma, halak wong, Tiyang jlema, jatma, Anak jalma, jelema oreng dau tau ureueng ema tao tawo tau olona tamata tangata kanaka tangata person

Cognate sets for Philippine languages[edit]

English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we what fire
Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Cebuano usa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Hiligaynon isa duwa tatlo apat tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita, taten ano kalayo
Aklanon isa daywa tatlo apat tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api
Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Pangasinan isa, sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog agew balo sikatayo anto apoy, pool
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Tao ása dóa (raroa) tílo (tatlo) apat (ápat) tao vahay chito niyoy araw vayo yaten ango apoy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Gorontalo tuwewu duluwo totolu wopato tawu bele ʔapula sekat dulahu bohu ʔito wolo tulu
Bolaang Mongondow inta' dua tolu opat intau baloi ungku' cekut siŋgai mo-bagu kita onda tuluʔ

See also[edit]