Appendix:Finnish conjugation/kaivaa

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KOTUS type 56 (kaivaa) NSK types 9–11 (kaivaa, haastaa and paistaa) Common type I

Two-syllable verbs, first vowel a/e/i, ending with -aa (not -ää); consonant gradation possible.

As with muistaa, -a- changes to -e- before the passive ending, but it mutates to -o- before the -i- of the personal past tense instead of being dropped.

Basic conjugation without consonant gradation[edit]

Consonant gradation[edit]


grade pp → p tt → t k → ∅ t → d nt → nn
infinitive I strong tappaa taittaa alkaa raataa antaa present weak tapan taitan alan raadan annan past strong tappoi taittoi alkoi raatoi antoi conditional strong tappaisi taittaisi alkaisi raataisi antaisi potential strong tappanee taittanee alkanee raatanee antanee imperative strong tappakoon taittakoon alkakoon raatakoon antakoon
past participle strong tappanut taittanut alkanut raatanut antanut
passive past weak tapettiin taitettiin alettiin raadettiin annettiin

Complete conjugation example with consonant gradation (t → d)[edit]