Appendix:Finnish nominal inflection/askel

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KOTUS type 49 (askel/askele) NSK type 82 (askel)

Nominals ending with -l(e)/-r(e)/-n(e); inverted consonant gradation possible.

These words have dual forms, with and without the final -e. When the -e is present, the declension is as hame. Without it, the declension is as sisar.

Basic declension without consonant gradation[edit]

Note that the illative singular of the askel form is rarely used, as it would be confused with the genitive singular of the askele form (askeleen).

back vowels
(contains a, o or u)
front vowels
(no a, o or u)

Consonant gradation[edit]

The form without the final -e can undergo inverted consonant gradation. The form with -e has the strong consonant without gradation.


grade p → pp ∅ → k v → p d → t ng → nk mm → mp nn → nt → t
nominative weak sepel säen taival udar penger ommel manner auer
genitive strong seppelen kenen taipalen utaren penkeren ompelen manteren auteren
partitive weak sepeltä säentä taivalta udarta pengertä ommelta mannerta auerta
elative strong seppelestä kenestä taipalesta utaresta penkerestä ompelesta manteresta auteresta
illative strong seppeleen keneen taipaleen utareen penkereen ompeleen mantereen autereen

Complete declension example with consonant gradation (d → t)[edit]

singular plural
nominative udar utaret
genitive utaren utarien
partitive udarta utaria
accusative udar
inessive utaressa utarissa
elative utaresta utarista
illative (utareen) utariin
adessive utarella utarilla
ablative utarelta utarilta
allative utarelle utarille
essive utarena utarina
translative utareksi utariksi
instructive utarin
abessive utaretta utaritta
comitative utarineen
singular plural
nominative utare utareet
genitive utareen utareiden
partitive utaretta utareita
accusative utare
inessive utareessa utareissa
elative utareesta utareista
illative utareeseen utareisiin
adessive utareella utareilla
ablative utareelta utareilta
allative utareelle utareille
essive utareena utareina
translative utareeksi utareiksi
instructive utarein
abessive utareetta utareitta
comitative utareineen