Appendix:Geologic timescale

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The eons, eras, periods and epochs of geologic time - most recent first - numbers are millions of years ago and mark the end of the timeframe

Contents

Phanerozoic eon[edit]

Cenozoic era[edit]

66-present

Quaternary period[edit]

2.58-present

Holocene epoch[edit]
Pleistocene epoch[edit]
  • 2.58-0.0117 - rise and fall of the large mammals, evolution of man
Upper Pleistocene age[edit]
  • 0.126-0.0117
Middle Pleistocene age[edit]
  • 0.781-0.126
Calabrian age[edit]
  • 1.80-0.781
Gelasian age[edit]
  • 2.58-1.80

Neogene period[edit]

23.03-2.58

Pliocene epoch[edit]

5.333-2.58 - ice age, modern mammals and molluscs appear

Piacenzian age[edit]
  • 3.600-2.58
Zanclean age[edit]
  • 5.333-3.600
Miocene epoch[edit]

23.03-5.333 - moderate climate, mountain building, mammals & birds appear, grass grows

Messinian age[edit]
  • 7.246-5.333
Tortonian age[edit]
  • 11.62-7.246
Serravallian age[edit]
  • 13.82-11.62
Langhian age[edit]
  • 15.97-13.82
Burdigalian age[edit]
  • 20.44-15.97
Aquitanian age[edit]
  • 23.03-20.44

Paleogene period[edit]

Oligocene epoch[edit]
  • 23 - warm climate, rapid evolution,
Eocene epoch[edit]
  • 34 - archaic mammals, start of current ice age
Paleocene epoch[edit]
  • 56 - tropical climate, first large mammals

Mesozoic era[edit]

Cretaceous period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 65 - flowering plants, fish, dinosaurs
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 100 - break up of Gondwanaland

Jurassic period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 145 - ferns
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 161 - lizards
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 175 - ammonites

Triassic period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 200 -- archosaurs
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 230 - amphibians
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 245 - first small mammals

Paleozoic era[edit]

Permian period[edit]

Lopingian epoch[edit]
  • 251 - supercontinent of Pangea
Guadalupian epoch[edit]
Cisuralian epoch[edit]

Carboniferous period[edit]

Upper Pennsylvanian epoch[edit]
  • 299 - winged insects
Middle Pennsylvanian epoch[edit]
  • 306 - reptiles, coal forests
Lower Pennsylvanian epoch[edit]
  • 312 - high oxygen content atmosphere
Upper Mississippian epoch[edit]
  • 318 - primitive trees
Middle Mississippian epoch[edit]
  • 326 - primitive sharks
Lower Mississippian epoch[edit]
  • 345 - glaciation

Devonian period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 359 - clubmosses
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 385 - crinoids
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 398 - jawed fish

Silurian period[edit]

Pridoli epoch[edit]
  • 416 - first vascular land plants
Ludlow epoch[edit]
  • 419 - millipedes
Wenlock epoch[edit]
  • 423 - corals
Llandovery epoch[edit]
  • 428 - trilobites

Ordovician period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 443 - invertebrates dominant
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 461 - starfish
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 471 - first land plants

Cambrian period[edit]

541.0±1.0-485.4±1.0

Furongian epoch[edit]

497-485.4±1.0

Stage 10[edit]
  • 489.5-485.4±1.0 - Cambrian explosion of life
Jiangshanian[edit]
  • 494-489.5
Paibian[edit]
  • 497-494 - Trilobites
Series 3[edit]

509-497

Guzhangian[edit]
  • 500.5-497
Drumian[edit]
  • 504.5-500.5
Stage 5[edit]
  • 509-504.5
Series 2[edit]

521-509

Stage 4[edit]
  • 514-509 - sponges
Stage 3[edit]
  • 521-514
Terreneuvian[edit]

541.0±1.0-521

Stage 2[edit]
  • 529-521
Fortunian[edit]
  • 541.0±1.0-529

Proterozoic eon[edit]

2,500-541.0±1.0

Neoproterozoic era[edit]

1,000-541.0±1.0

Ediacaran period[edit]

  • 635-541.0±1.0 - first multi-celled animals

Cryogenian period[edit]

  • 850-635 - snowball earth

Tonian period[edit]

  • 1,000-850 - acritarch radiation

Mesoproterozoic era[edit]

1,600-1,000

Stennian period[edit]

  • 1,200-1,000 - formation of Rodinia

Ectasian period[edit]

  • 1,400-1,200

Calymmian period[edit]

  • 1,600-1,400

Paleoproterozoic era[edit]

2,500-1,600

Statherian period[edit]

  • 1,800-1,600 - first complex single-celled life

Orosirian period[edit]

  • 2,050-1,800 - transition to oxygen atmosphere

Rhyacian period[edit]

  • 2,300-2,050

Siderian period[edit]

  • 2,500-2,300

Archaean eon[edit]

  • 4,000-2,500

Neoarchean era[edit]

  • 2,800-2,500 - stabilization of most modern cratons

Mesoarchean era[edit]

Paleoarchean era[edit]

Eoarchean era[edit]

  • 4,000-3,600 - first single-celled organisms

Hadean eon[edit]

Before 4,000

  • ~4,000 - oldest known rock
  • 4,400 - oldest known mineral
  • 4,570 - Earth formed