Appendix:Geologic timescale

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The eons, eras, periods and epochs of geologic time - most recent first - numbers are millions of years ago and mark the end of the timeframe

Contents

Phanerozoic eon[edit]

Cenozoic era[edit]

Neogene period[edit]

Holocene epoch[edit]
Pleistocene epoch[edit]
  • 0.011 - rise and fall of the large mammals, evolution of man
Pliocene epoch[edit]
  • 1.8 - ice age, modern mammals and molluscs appear
Miocene epoch[edit]

Paleogene period[edit]

Oligocene epoch[edit]
  • 23 - warm climate, rapid evolution,
Eocene epoch[edit]
  • 34 - archaic mammals, start of current ice age
Paleocene epoch[edit]
  • 56 - tropical climate, first large mammals

Mesozoic era[edit]

Cretaceous period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 65 - flowering plants, fish, dinosaurs
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 100 - break up of Gondwanaland

Jurassic period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 145 - ferns
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 161 - lizards
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 175 - ammonites

Triassic period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 200 -- archosaurs
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 230 - amphibians
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 245 - first small mammals

Paleozoic era[edit]

Permian period[edit]

Lopingian epoch[edit]
  • 251 - supercontinent of Pangea
Guadalupian epoch[edit]
Cisuralian epoch[edit]

Carboniferous period[edit]

Upper Pennsylvanian epoch[edit]
  • 299 - winged insects
Middle Pennsylvanian epoch[edit]
  • 306 - reptiles, coal forests
Lower Pennsylvanian epoch[edit]
  • 312 - high oxygen content atmosphere
Upper Mississippian epoch[edit]
  • 318 - primitive trees
Middle Mississippian epoch[edit]
  • 326 - primitive sharks
Lower Mississippian epoch[edit]
  • 345 - glaciation

Devonian period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 359 - clubmosses
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 385 - crinoids
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 398 - jawed fish

Silurian period[edit]

Pridoli epoch[edit]
  • 416 - first vascular land plants
Ludlow epoch[edit]
  • 419 - millipedes
Wenlock epoch[edit]
  • 423 - corals
Llandovery epoch[edit]
  • 428 - trilobites

Ordovician period[edit]

Upper epoch[edit]
  • 443 - invertebrates dominant
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 461 - starfish
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 471 - first land plants

Cambrian period[edit]

Furongian epoch[edit]
  • 488 - Cambrian explosion of life
Middle epoch[edit]
  • 501 - Trilobites
Lower epoch[edit]
  • 513 - sponges

Proterozoic eon[edit]

Neoproterozoic era[edit]

Ediacaran period[edit]

  • 542 - first multi-celled animals

Cryogenian period[edit]

  • 630 - snowball earth

Tonian period[edit]

  • 850 - acritarch radiation

Mesoproterozoic era[edit]

Stennian period[edit]

  • 1000 - formation of Rodinia

Ectasian period[edit]

  • 1200

Calymmian period[edit]

  • 1400

Paleoproterozoic era[edit]

Statherian period[edit]

  • 1600 - first complex single-celled life

Orosirian period[edit]

  • 1800 - transition to oxygen atmosphere

Rhyacian period[edit]

  • 2050

Siderian period[edit]

  • 2300

Archaean eon[edit]

Neoarchean era[edit]

  • 2,500 - stabilization of most modern cratons

Mesoarchean era[edit]

Paleoarchean era[edit]

Eoarchean era[edit]

  • 3,600 - first single-celled organisms

Hadean eon[edit]

  • 3,800 to 4,100 - oldest known rock
  • 4,400 - oldest known mineral
  • 4,570 - Earth formed