Appendix:Glossary of Christianity

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This is a glossary of Christianity.


Table of Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A[edit]

abbot 
The superior or head of an abbey or monastery.
absolution 
(Roman Catholic Church) The exercise of priestly jurisdiction in the sacrament of penance, by which Catholics believe the sins of the truly penitent are forgiven.
afterlife 
Life after death.
Amish 
A strict Anabaptist sect living mainly in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana.
Anabaptist 
A member of a radical wing of Christians during the Protestant Reformation.
angel 
A divine and supernatural messenger from a deity, or other divine entity.
archbishop 
In the Roman Catholic Church and other churches, a senior bishop who is in charge of an archdiocese, and presides over a group of dioceses called a province.
Augustinian 
A follower of St Augustine, of his doctrines.

B[edit]

baptize 
To sprinkle or pour water over, or to immerse in water, as a spiritual cleansing process in the rite of Christian baptism.
baptism 
The Christian sacrament in which one is anointed with or submerged in water and sometimes given a name.
bishop 
A high ranking official in the Catholic church who governs a diocese, or a similar official in other denominations and religions.

C[edit]

Calvinism 
The Christian doctrines taught preeminently by John Calvin. Emphasis is placed on the sovereignty of God, and one distinctive of the system is its doctrine of predestination, which teaches that a special few are predetermined for salvation by God.
Catholicism 
The faiths, practices and doctrines of a Catholic Church, but especially of the Roman Catholic Church.
ceremony 
A ritual with religious significance.
clergy 
People, such as ministers, priests and rabbis, who are trained to officiate at religious ceremonies and services.
clergyman 
An ordained Christian minister.
christen 
To baptize.
church 
A Christian house of worship; a building where religious services take place.
church 
A Christian religious organization, local or general.
church service 
A formalized period of communal worship, often but not exclusively occurring on Sunday, or Saturday in the case of those churches practicing Sabbatarianism.
Christendom 
The Christian world.
Christmas 
The Christian holiday which celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ.
Christian 
A believer in Christianity.
Christianity 
A monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ.
confession 
(Roman Catholicism) The disclosure of one's sins to a priest for absolution. Now termed the sacrament of reconciliation.
confessor 
One who confesses to having done something wrong.
Crusade 
One of a series of ostensibly religious campaigns by Christian forces from the 11th to the 13th century, mostly to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims who occupied it.
crusader 
Person engaged in a crusade.

D[edit]

denomination 
A class, or society of individuals, called by the same name; a sect; as, a denomination of Christians.
devil
A creature of hell.
devil
The chief devil; Satan.
diocese 
In Christian religions, a region administered by a bishop.
Divine Liturgy 
The Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic eucharistic service.
Dominican 
A member of the religious order founded by St. Dominic.

E[edit]

ecclesiastical 
Of or pertaining to the church; as, ecclesiastical architecture.
ecumenical 
Pertaining to the Christian Church in a worldwide sense or of the desire to unite the denominations of the Christian Church.
episcopal 
Of or relating to the affairs of a bishop in various Christian churches.
Eucharist 
The ceremony of Holy Communion. This meaning is synonymous with service of the Mass or Eastern Divine Liturgy.

F[edit]

Franciscan 
A monk or nun belonging to the religious order founded by St Francis of Assisi.
friar 
A member of certain Christian orders such as the Augustinians, Carmelites (white friars), Franciscans (grey friars) or the Dominicans (black friars).

G[edit]

godchild 
A child whose baptism is sponsored by a godparent.
godparent 
The person who stood for a child during a naming ceremony or baptism.
gospel 
The first section of the Christian New Testament scripture, comprising the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, concerned with the life, death, and teachings of Jesus.

H[edit]

heaven 
The paradise of the afterlife in certain religions, considered to be the home of the god or gods of those religions.
hell 
The place where devils live and where sinners are punished after death.
Holy Communion 
A Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper of Christ.
Hutterite 
A memeber of a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.

J[edit]

Jesus Christ 
A name for Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish man whom Christians believe to be the Messiah, or Christ.

L[edit]

Lord's Supper 
In Christianity, the Eucharist.
Lutheranism 
The system of beliefs and doctrines first developed by Martin Luther and his immediate followers.

M[edit]

Mass 
The principal liturgical service of the Church, including a scripture service and a eucharistic service, which includes the consecration and oblation (offering) of the host and wine. One of the seven sacraments.
Methodism 
The Methodist Christian movement founded by John Wesley in 18th-century England.
Mennonite 
A group of denominations in the anabaptist movement in the Christian church.
minister 
A person who is trained to perform religious ceremonies at a Protestant church.
monastery 
Place of residence for members of a religious community (especially monks).
monk 
A male member of a monastic order who has devoted his life for religious service.
monotheism 
The belief in a single god, deity, spirit, etc.; especially within an organized religion, faith, or creed.
Mormonism 
Religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the "Latter Day Saint" movement.

N[edit]

nun 
A member of a Christian religious community of women who live by certain vows and usually wear a habit.

O[edit]

Orthodoxy 
The beliefs and practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, or of Orthodox Judaism.

P[edit]

paradise 
A very pleasant place.
penitent 
One under the direction of a confessor.
pietism 
A movement in the Lutheran church in the 17th and 18th centuries.
pope 
The bishop of Rome; the head of the Roman Catholic church.
pray 
To petition or solicit help from a supernatural or higher being.
prayer 
The specific words or methods used for praying.
preach 
To give a sermon.
preacher 
Someone who preaches the gospel; a clergyman.
priest 
A religious clergyman who is trained to perform services or sacrifices at a church or temple.
Presbyterian 
Relating to the Presbyterian Church.
Protestantism 
The Protestant (rather than the Roman Catholic or Orthodox) Christian religion.
Puritan 
A member of a particular Protestant religious sect.
Puritanism 
The beliefs and practices of the Puritans.

Q[edit]

Quakerism 
An alternate name for the belief system of the members of the Religious Society of Friends, an ostensibly Christian religious denomination that began in England in the 17th century.

R[edit]

rite 
A religious custom.
ritual 
A rite; a repeated set of actions.

S[edit]

sacrament 
A sacred act or ceremony in Christianity. In Roman Catholic theology, a sacrament is defined as "an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace."
Satan 
The Devil.
sermon 
A religious discourse; a written or spoken address on a religious or moral matter.