Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/d

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*deh₁- to bind Alb. duaj, Gk. δέω (déō), Skr. द्यति (dyáti), Av. nī.diiātąm
*dayh₂wḗr husband's brother Skr. देवृ (devṛ́), Russ. деве́рь (devérʹ), Polish dziewierz, Lith. dieveris, Ltv. dieveris, Gm. zeihhur/—, Eng. tācor/—, Gk. δαήρ (daḗr), Arm. տագր (tagr), OCS дѣвєрь (děverĭ), Kurd. diš
*deh₃- to give Russ. дать (datʹ), Arm. տամ (tam), Lith. duoti, Ltv. dot; deva, Skr. ददाति (dádāti), Av. dadāiti, Osset. дæттын (dættyn), Alb. dhashë, Gk. δίδωμι (dídōmi), Kashmiri dyūn, Polish dać, Phryg. dadón, Old Prussian dātwei, Lat. , Oscan dede, Umbrian dadad, Ir. dán/, Welsh dawn, Hitt. dā, Lyc. da, Luw. da-, Lyd. da-, Gaul. doenti, OCS дати (dati), Pers. 𐎭𐎭𐎠𐎬𐎺 (dadātuv) / دادَن (dādan)
*dem-h₂- to domesticate, tame Skr. दाम्यति (dāmyati), Gk. δαμνάω (damnáō), Ir. damnaim/, Hitt. damaašzi, Av. dam, Lat. domō, Eng. tam/tame, Gm. zemmen/zähmen, Goth. gatamjan, ON temja, Osset. домын (domyn, educate, bring up), Pers. /دام (dām), Welsh addef
*dewk- to lead Alb. nduk, Eng. togian/tow, Gm. ziohan/ziehen, Goth. tiuhan, ON toginn, Gk. ἀδευκής (adeukḗs), Lat. dūcō
*deḱs- right (direction) Gaul. Dexsiva, Lat. dexter, Umbrian destrame, Lith. dešinė, Av. dašina, Alb. djathtë, Gm. zeso/, Welsh deheu, Oscan destrst, Gk. δεξιός (deksiós), Skr. दक्षिण (dákṣiṇa), Goth. taíhswa, Ir. dech/, Toch. täk/, OCS дєснъ (desnŭ), Russ. десница (desnica), Kashmiri dchūn
*diks- goat Alb. dhi, Eng. ticcen/, Gm. ziga/Ziege, Arm. տիկ (tik), Wakhi tiγ, Ishkashmi dec
*dʰǵʰyes- yesterday Eng. geostran/yesterday, Alb. dje, Skr. ह्यस् (hyás), Av. zyō, Pers. diyaka/دیگ (dīg), Gk. χθές (khthés), Lat. herī, Welsh ddoe, Ir. indhé/an(d)é, Goth. gistradagis, ON í gǽr, Gm. gesteron/gestern
*dlegʰ- to engage oneself Ir. dliged/dlígheadh, Welsh dyled, Eng. pleġian/play; pliht/plight, Gm. pflegan/pflegen; pfliht/Pflicht, Lat. indulgēre; plevium, Russ. долг (dolg), Polish dług, OCS дльгъ (dlĭgŭ)
*dluh₂gʰó- long Hitt. dalugaes, Russ. до́лгий (dólgij), Lith. ilgas, Ltv. ilgs, Skr. दीर्घ (dīrghá), Av. darəga, Welsh dala, Lat. longus, Gaul. Loggostalētes, Pers. 𐎭𐎼𐎥 (darga) / دراز (darāz, dirāz), Eng. lang/long; lencten/lent, Gm. lang/lang; lenzo/Lenz, ON langr, Goth. laggs, Alb. gjatë, Gk. δολιχός (dolikhós), Old Prussian ilgi, Ir. long/, OCS длъгъ (dlŭgŭ), Polish długi, Welsh dal, Kashmiri dūr
*dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s tongue Lat. lingua, Ir. tenge/teanga, Eng. tunge/tongue, Goth. 𐍄𐌿𐌲𐌲𐍉 (tuggō), ON tunga, Skr. जिह्वा (jihvā́), Av. hizvā, Russ. язык (jazyk) Lith. liežuvis, Arm. լեզու (lezu), Gm. zunga/Zunge, Welsh tafod, Kamviri dic, Pers. hizbāna/زَبان (zabān), Old Prussian insuwis, Toch. käntu/kantwo
*dṓm house Skr. दम (dáma), Av. dąm, Gk. δόμος (dómos), Lat. domus, Russ. дом (dom), Polish dom, Eng. timber/timber, Gm. zimbar/Zimmer, ON timbr, Umbrian dâmoa, Arm. տուն (tun), Lith. namas, Ltv. nams, Welsh , Toch. tam/täm
*dows- forearm Skr. दोस् (dós), Av. daoš, Ir. doít/doíd, Lith. dilbis, Ltv. paduse, Russ. пазуха (pazuxa), Pers. /دوش (doš)
*dra- to run Skr. द्राति (drā́ti), Russ. удира́ть (udirátʹ), Gk. ἀπόδρασις (apódrasis); δρόμος (drómos), Illyr. Dravos, Lith. drebėti, Gm. /Trappel, Goth. anatrimpan, Av. draonah
*drem- to sleep Russ. дрема́ть (dremátʹ), Skr. द्रायति (drāyati), Gk. δαρθάνω (darthánō), Lat. dormiō, Arm. տարտամ (tartam), Polish drzemać, OCS dremlju
*dus- to fail Skr. दुष्यति (duṣyati), Av. duš, Gk. δέω (déō), Ir. do-/, Arm. տ- (t-), Goth. tuz-, ON tjón, Eng. tēona/, Gm. zur-/, OCS дъждь (dŭždĭ), Russ. дождь (doždʹ), Polish deszcz, Pers. dušiyaram/,
*dwóh₁, *dwó two Arm. երկու (erku), Alb. dy/dy, Lith. du/dvi, Ltv. divi, Gaul. vo, Gm. zwene/zwei, Eng. twā/two, Gk. δύο (dúo), Av. duua, Hitt. dā-, Ir. dá/dó, Kashmiri zū', Lyc. tuwa, Kamviri dü, Lat. duo, Oscan 𐌃𐌖𐌔 (dus), ON tveir, Old Prussian dwāi, Osset. дыууæ (dywuæ), Pers. duva/دو (do), OCS дъва (dŭva), Polish dwa, Russ. два (dva), Skr. द्व (dvá), Toch. wu/wi, Umbrian 𐌕𐌖𐌚 (tuf), Goth. 𐍄𐍅𐌰𐌹 (twai), Welsh dau
*dáḱru- tear
(drop from eye)
Gk. δάκρυ (dákru), Gm. zahar/Zähre, Eng. tēar/tear, Skr. अश्रु (áśru), Old Lat. decrimare, Lat. lacrima, Lith. ašara, Ltv. asara, Welsh deigryn, Ir. dér/déar, Toch. ākär/akrūna, Goth. 𐍄𐌰𐌲𐍂 (tagr), ON tár, Arm. արտաւսր (artawsr), Av. asrūazan
*déy-no- day Russ. день (denʹ), Ir. denus/, Lith. diena, Ltv. diena, Skr. दिन (diná), Lat. diēs, Alb. gdhin, Welsh dydd, Polish dzień, Ir. día/dia, Goth. sintīns, Old Prussian deinan, Eng. lencten/lent, Gm. lenzo/Lenz, OCS дьнь (dĭnĭ)
*deyw-ó- god, i.e. 'shining' Skr. देव (devá), Av. daēva, Lat. deus, Lith. dievas, Ltv. dievs, Old Prussian deiws, Oscan diúveí, Umbrian di, Gaul. Dēvona, Welsh duw, O.Ir. día, Ir. dia, Gk. Ζεύς (Zeús), Phryg. tios, Russ. диво (divo), Polish dziw, Kamviri di, Eng. Tiw/Tuesday, Gm. Ziu/—, ON Týr, Goth. Tyz, Lyc. ziw, Luw. tiwat-, Lyd. Divi-, Palaic tiyaz, Arm. տիւ (tiw), OCS дивъ (divŭ)
*déḱm̥t ten Arm. տասն (tasn), Alb. dhjetë/dhetë, Lith. dešimt, Ltv. desmit, Gaul. decam, Gm. zēhen/zehn, Dacian dece-, Eng. tīen/ten, Gk. δέκα (déka), Av. dasa, Ir. deich/deich, Kashmiri da.h, Kamviri duc, Lat. decem, Oscan 𐌃𐌄𐌊𐌄𐌍 (deken), ON tíu, Old Prussian desīmtan, Osset. дæс (dæs), Pers. daθa/ده (dah), OCS дєсѧть (desętĭ), Polish dziesięć, Russ. десять (desjatʹ), Skr. दश (dáśa), Toch. śäk/śak, Umbrian 𐌃𐌄𐌔𐌄𐌌 (desem), Goth. 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿𐌽 (taihun), Welsh deg
*dóru tree Arm. ծառ (caṙ), Lith. derva, Ltv. dreve, Gaul. Dervus, Russ. де́рево (dérevo), Eng. trēow/tree, Hitt. taru, Luw. tarweja-, Gk. δρῦς (drûs), Alb. dru/drû, Ir. dair/dair, Toch. or, Kamviri dâa, Pers. / دار (dār) درخت (derakht), Polish drzewo, Welsh derwen, Skr. दारु (dā́ru), Av. dāuru, Goth. 𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌿 (triu), ON tré, Old Prussian drawine, OCS дрѣво (drěvo), XMK darullos