Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₁

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₁ar-mo- arm Osset. арм (arm), Arm. արմուկն (armukn), Lat. armus, OCS рамо (ramo), Goth. 𐌰𐍂𐌼𐍃 (arms), Serb. rame (shoulder), Eng. earm/arm, Skr. ईर्म (īrmá), Old Prussian irmo, Gm. aram/Arm, ON armr, Gk. ἄρθρον (árthron)
*h₁dónts tooth Lat. dens, Gk. ὀδούς (odoús), Welsh dant, Lith. dantis, Skr. दत् (dát), Marathi /dat, Eng. tōþ/tooth, Gm. zand/Zahn, Goth. tunþus, Polish dziąsło, Russ. десна́ (desná), Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Pers. /دندان (dandān), Kashmiri dãd, Ir. dét/déad, ON tǫnn, Osset. дæндаг (dændag)
*h₁ed- to eat Lith. ėsti, Ltv. ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russ. есть (jestʹ), Polish jeść, Skr. अत्ति (átti), Av. ad, Arm. ուտեմ (utem), Hitt. 𒂊𒀉𒈪 (eidmi), Luw. ad-; az-, Palaic ata-, Lat. edō, Oscan edum, Gk. ἔδω (édō), Eng. etan/eat, Gm. essan/essen, ON eta, Goth. 𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (itan), Ir. esse/, Thrac. esko-, Toch. /yesti, OCS ꙗсти (jasti)
*h₁edʰ- sharp Russ. ель (jelʹ), Lith. eglė, Ltv. egle, Lat. ebulus, Gaul. odocos, Ir. aidlen/ailim, Old Prussian addle, Eng. ellærn/elder (tree), Gm. attuh/, Polish jodła, Gk. elate
*h₁eh₁ter- intestines Gk. ἦτορ (êtor), Ir. inathar/, Lat. uterus, ON ǽðr, Eng. ǣdder, Gm. ādra/Ader
*h₁eh₂-ter- fire Arm. այրեմ (ayrem), Ir. áith/áith, Welsh odyn, Av. ātarš, Pers. آدر (ādar), Lat. āter, Umbrian atru, Oscan Aadíriis
*h₁ey- to go Skr. एति (éti), Av. aēiti, Gk. εἶμι (eîmi), Lat. , Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri ie, Gaul. eimu, Toch. i/i, Ir. ethaim/, Pers. 𐎠𐎡𐎫𐎡𐎹 (aitiy) /, OCS ити (iti), Luw. 𒄿𒄿 (iti), Goth. 𐌹𐌳𐌳𐌾𐌰 (iddja), Eng. ēode/--, Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. идти́ (idtí), Polish iść, Alb. ik
*h₁eybʰ- to copulate Gm. eiba/—, Skr. यभति (yabhati), Russ. еба́ть (jebátʹ), Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. οἴφω (oíphō)/, Polish jebać
*h₁el- elbow Gm. elina/elle, Gk. ὠλένη (ōlénē), Arm. ոլոք (olokʿ), Lith. uolektis, Ltv. olekts, Russ. ло́коть (lókotʹ), Skr. आणि (āṇi), Welsh elin, Eng. eln/ell, Ir. uilin/uille, Goth. 𐌰𐌻𐌴𐌹𐌽𐌰 (aleina), ON aln, Alb. llërë/llânë, Av. arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, OCS pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Pers. /ارن (āran, aran)
*h₁engʷ- gland Alb. angërr, Gk. ἀδήν (adḗn), Lat. inguen, ON ǫkkvinn
*h₁epero- boar Lith. Vepriai, Ltv. vepris, Gm. ebur/Eber, Eng. eofor/--, Russ. вепрь (veprʹ), Polish wieprz, Skr. वपति (vapati), Lat. aper; vepres, Umbrian apruf, Old Prussian Weppren, Thrac. ebros, ON jǫfurr, Gaul. eburo
*h₁er- goat Arm. որոճ (oroč), Lith. ėriukas, Ltv. jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Lat. ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Ir. heirp/earb, Gk. ἔριφος (ériphos), Gm. irah/, OCS jarici
*h₁erh₁gʷo- pea Gk. ὄροβος (órobos), Ir. orbaind/, Welsh erfin, Lat. ervum, Gm. arawīz/Erbse, ON ertr, Serb. grašak, zrno graška, Skt. aravindam
*h₁es- to be OCS єстъ (estŭ), Russ. есть (jestʹ), Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Gk. ἐστί (estí), Ir. am/, Skr. अस्ति (ásti), Av. asti, Lat. esse, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Eng. is/is, Arm. եմ (em), Polish jest, Serb. biti, Alb. është/âsht, Gm. ist/ist, Goth. 𐌹𐍃𐍄 (ist), ON es, Hitt. 𒂊𒌍𒍣 (ēszi), Lyc. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic aš-, Toch. e/ei, Pers. 𐎠𐎿𐎫𐎡𐎹 (astiy) / است (ast)
*h₁ew- to dress Av. aoθra, Russ. обу́ть (obútʹ), Polish obuć, Lith. aũti, Ltv. àut, Lat. exuō; induō; subūcula, Arm. ագանիմ (aganim), Old Prussian auclo, Umbrian anovihimu, Ir. fúan/, Welsh gŵn, OCS обути (obuti); izuti, Alb. mbath, Toch. /ewe
*h₁ewHdʰ-r̥- udder Lith. ūdruoju, Eng. ūder/udder, Gm. ūtir/Euter, ON júgr, Gk. οὖθαρ (oûthar), Skr. ऊधस् (ū́dhas), Lat. ūber, Russ. вы́мя (výmja), Polish wymię
*h₁ews- to burn Alb. ushël, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Lat. ūrō, Gk. εὕω (heúō), Gm. eimuria/, Eng. ǣmerge/ember, ON usli, Skr. ओषति (oṣati)
*h₁ewegʷʰ- to praise Skr. वाघत् (vāghat), Av. raštarəvaġənti, Gk. εὔχομαι (eúkhomai), Arm. գոգեմ (gogem), Lat. vovēre, Umbrian vufetes
*h₁eǵʰi- hedgehog Russ. ёж (jóž), Lith. ežys, Ltv. ezis, Phryg. eksis, Gk. ἐχῖνος (ekhînos), Gm. igil/Igel, Arm. ոզնի (ozni), Eng. igil/--, ON ígul, Osset. уызын (wyzyn), Polish jeż, Phryg. eksis, Alb. esh
*h₁eǵʰs out Lat. ex, Gk. ἐκ (ek)/ἐξ (eks), Gaul. ex-, Ir. ass/as; acht/; echtar, Russ. из (iz), Alb. jashtë, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Lith. iš, Ltv. iz, Old Prussian is, Welsh a
*h₁éḱwos horse Lat. equus, Toch. yuk/yakwe, Gaul. epos, Gk. ἵππος (híppos), Skr. अश्व (áśva), Av. aspa-, Lith. ašva, Old Prussian aswinan, Kamviri ušpa, Eng. eoh/—, Gm. ehwaz/—, Goth. 𐌰𐌹𐍈𐍄𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌹 (aiƕtundi), ON jór, Hitt. aśuwas, Arm. էշ (ēš) , Welsh ebol, Ir. ech/each, Thrac. esvas, Lyc. esbe-, Phryg. es', Pers. 𐎠𐎿 (asa) / اسپ (asp), Osset. ефс (efs, mare)/æфсæ (æfsæ), Venetic ekvon, Alb. sasë
*h₁nómn̥ name Toch. ñom/ñem, Lat. nōmen, Umbrian 𐌄𐌌𐌏𐌍 (nome), Eng. nama/name, Gm. namo/Name, ON nafn, Goth. 𐌽𐌰𐌼𐍉 (namō), Skr. नामन् (nā́man), Av. nąman, Gk. ὄνομα (ónoma), OCS имѧ (imę), Russ. имя (imja), Serb. ime, Alb. emër/êmën, Ir. ainm/ainm, Welsh enw, Hitt. 𒆷𒀀𒈠𒀭 (lāman), Kamviri nom, Pers. 𐎴𐎠𐎶 (nāma) / نام (nām), Arm. անուն (anun), Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes
*h₁oh₁s- mouth Skr. आस् (ās)); ओष्ठ (óṣṭha), Av. aosta, Lat. ōs, Lith. uosta, Ltv. osta, Russ. уста́ (ustá), Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, Eng. ōr/—, Hitt. aiš, ON oss
*h₁oh₁ḱ-u- quick Gk. ὠκύς (ōkús), Lat. ōcior, OWelsh di-auc, Av. āsu, Skr. आशु (āśú), Russ. я́стреб (jástreb), OCS ꙗстрѧбъ (jastrębŭ)
*h₁omH₁-so- shoulder Gk. ὦμος (ômos), Lat. umĕrus, Skr. अंस (aṃsa), Goth. 𐌰𐌼𐍃 (ams), ON ass, Toch. es/āntse, Arm. ուս (us)
*h₁oḱtṓw eight Arm. ութ (utʿ), Alb. tëte/tetë, Lith. aštuoni, Ltv. astoņi, Gaul. oxtū, Gm. ahto/acht, Eng. eahta/eight, Gk. ὀκτώ (oktṓ), Av. ašta, Ir. ocht/ocht, Kashmiri ā.h, Lyc. aitãta-, Kamviri u, Lat. octō, Oscan uhto, ON átta, Old Prussian astōnjai, Osset. аст (ast); фараст (farast), Pers. ašta/هشت (hašt), OCS осмь (osmĭ), Polish osiem, Russ. во́семь (vósemʹ), Skr. अष्ट (aṣṭa) (aa), Toch. okät/okt, Goth. 𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰𐌿 (ahtau), Welsh wyth
*h₁rewdʰ-ó- red Lat. ruber, Eng. rēad/red, Lith. raudonas, Ltv. ruds, Skr. रुधिर (rudhira), Russ. рдеть (rdetʹ), Gk. ἐρυθρός (eruthrós), Toch. rtär/ratre, Av. raoðita, Goth. rauþs, ON rauðr, rjóðr, Gm. rōt/rot, Oscan Rufriis, Umbrian rufru, Ir. ruadh/ Welsh rhudd, Gaul. Roudos
*h₁rebʰ- to roof Gk. ἐρέφω (eréphō), OCS рєбро (rebro), Russ. ребро́ (rebró), Eng. ribb/rib, ON rif, Gm. ribba/Rippe, Polish żebro
*h₁rep- to snatch Lat. rapere, Gk. ἐρέπτομαι (eréptomai); ἁρπάζω (harpázō), Lith. ap-répti, Eng. reap, Gm. reifsen, Alb. rjep
*h₁rewg- to vomit Russ. рыга́ть (rygátʹ), Polish rzygać, Lith. riaugėti, Ltv. raugāties, Gk. ἐρεύγομαι (ereúgomai), Lat. ructāre, Eng. rēocan/reek, Gm. rouhhan/rauchen; itruchen/, ON reykja, Pers. /āroġ, Arm. ործամ (orcam)
*h₁rewgʰmen- cream Lith. rūgti, Ltv. raugs, Av. raoġna, Pers. /roġān, ON rjúmi, Eng. rēam/ream, Gm. roum/Rahm, Alb. vrug
*h₁rews-men- throat Skr. रोमन्थ (romantha), Lat. rūmen, Welsh rhumen, Lith. raumuo, Ltv. raumins
*h₁éh₃g-o- berry Toch. oko/oko, Lith. úoga, Ltv. oga, OCS jagoda, Russ. я́года (jágoda), Polish jagoda, Goth. akran, ON akarn, Gm. ēker/Ecker, Eng. æcern/acorn, Ir. arni/àirne, Welsh eirin
*h₁ésh₂r̥ (nom-acc. *h₁ésh₂r̥, gen. *h₁esh₂n-ós) blood Skr. असृज् (ásṛj), Old Lat. aser, Lat. sanguen, Ir. iarn/iarann, Ltv. asins, Hitt. ēšar, Lyc. esêne-, Luw. ašhar-, Toch. ysār/yasar, Gk. ἔαρ (éar), Arm. արիւն (ariwn)
*h₁óy-no- one Alb. një/njâ; njëri/njâni, Lith. vienas, Ltv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. οἶος (oîos), Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Kamviri ev, Oscan uinus, ON einn, Old Prussian aīns, Osset. иу (iw)/ieu, Pers. aiva/yek, OCS ѥдинъ (jedinŭ) / ѥдьнъ (jedĭnŭ), Polish jeden, Russ. оди́н (odín), Skr. एक (eka), Lat. ūnus, Umbrian uns, Goth. 𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (ains), Welsh un
*h₁n̥gʷn- fire Skr. अग्नि (agní), Hitt. 𒀀𒀝𒉌𒅖 (agnis), Lat. ignis, Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS огнь (ognĭ), Polish ogień, Russ. ого́нь (ogónʹ), Alb. enjte