Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₂

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂eh₁b-el- apple Lith. obuolys, Ltv. ābols, Eng. æppel/apple, Russ. яблоко (jabloko), Ir. uball/ubhall, Gm. aphul/Apfel, Polish jabłko, Welsh afal, Old Prussian woble, Skr. अबल (abala), ON eple, Gaul. avallo, OCS аблъко (ablŭko)
*h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Arm. եզն (ezn), Ir. ag/agh, Welsh ael; eilion, Skr. अही (ahī), Av. azī
*h₂ego- fault, sin Skr. आगस् (ā́gas), Gk. ἄγος (ágos), Eng. acan/ache
*h₂ekʷeh₂ water Lat. aqua, Welsh aig, Russ. Ока (Oka), Goth. aha, Gm. aha/Ache, Eng. éa; īg/island, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-, ON á, Goth. aƕa
*h₂ep- water Skr. अप् (apha), Pers. 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 (apiyā) / آب (āb), Lith úpe ; *h₂p-isk- "fish" Lat. piscis, Ir. íasc/iasc, Goth. fisks, ON fiskr, Eng. fisc/fish, Gm. fisc/Fisch, Russ. пескарь (peskar'), Polish piskorz
*h₂egʷs-ih₂- axe Lat. ascia, Eng. æx/axe, Gm. ackis/Axt, Gk. ἀξίνη (aksínē), ON øx, Goth. aqizi
*h₂egʷnos lamb OCS [script needed] (agnę), Russ. ягнёнок (jagnjónok), Gk. ἀμνός (amnós), Ir. úan/uan, Eng. ēanian/yean, Welsh oen, Lat. agnus, Umb. [script needed] (habina), Pol. jagnię, Alb. enjë/êjë
*h₂eyg- sick Lat. aeger, Toch. ekroill/aikare, ON eikenn; eikja/eikla, Lith. ingas, Ltv. angus, OCS jęsa, Russ. яга (jaga), Polish jędza, Eng. ācol/, Alb. kë-ëk
*h₂eym- copy Hitt. imma, Lat. aemulus; imāgō; reimere; geminus, MIr. emon, Alb. gjysmë, Lith. jumis, Skt. yamá, Av.' yima
*h₂eyti- part Av. aēta, Oscan aeteis, Gk. αἴτιος (aítios)
*h₂eyw- vital force Skr. आयु (āyu), Lat. aevum, Ir. áes/aois, Av. āyū, Toch. A āym, Eng. æfre/ever, Gm. īo/je; êwig/ewig, Goth. aiws, ON ei, Gk. αἰών (aiṓn), Alb. eshë
*h₂eyǵ- goat Skr. एड (eajá), Av. izaēna, Pers. azg, Arm. այծ (ayc), Gk. αἴξ (aíks), Alb. edh, Lith ožỹs, Ltv. āzis
*h₂eyǵ- oak Lith. ąžuolas, Lat. aesculus, Gk. aigilōps; κράταιγος (krátaigos), ON eik, Eng. āc/oak, Gm. eihha/Eiche, MIr. áesc, Alb. enjë
*h₂eyḱ- spear/pike Gk. aiklos?/, Lat. īcō, Old Prussian aysmis, OCS igla, Polish igła, Av. išarə, Lith. iešmas, Ltv. iesms, ON eigin, Russ. игла (igla)
*h₂eyḱ- to be master of, to possess Eng. āgan/ought, Goth. aigan, Gm. eigan/eigen, ON eiga, Skr. ईष्टेe), Av. īšti
*h₂ek-mon- stone Gk. ἄκμων (ákmōn), Lith. akmuo, Ltv. akmens, Skr. अश्मन् (áśman), Av. asman, Russ. камень (kamen'), Eng. hamer/hammer, Polish kamień, ON hamarr, Hitt. aku, Pers. 𐎠𐎿𐎶𐎠𐎴𐎶 (asmānam)/, Gaul. acaunum, Gm. hamar/Hammer
*h₂el-yó-, *h₂el-nó- other Lat. alius, Eng. elles/else; ōþer/other, Skr. अरण (araa), Gk. ἄλλος (állos), Oscan allo, Toch. ālak/allek, Arm. այլ (ayl), Gaul. alla, Ir. aile/eile, Welsh ail, Goth. aljis; anþar, Gm. elilenti/elend; andar/andere, ON elligar; annarr, Lyd. aλaś, Osset. æндæр (ændær)
*h₂elbʰ-it- barley Alb. elb, Gk. ἄλφιτον (álphiton), Pashto ōrbaše, Wakhi arbəsi
*h₂elbʰó- white Lat. albus, Umbrian alfu, Hitt. alpas, Gm. Alps, Welsh elfydd, Russ. лебедь (lebed'), Eng. ælf/elf, Gk. ἀλφός (alphós), Lyc. alb-, ON alfr
*h₂elud- beer Lith. alus, Ltv. alus, Lat. alūmen, Eng. ealu/ale, Gk. ἀλύδοιμος (alúdoimos)?/, ON ǫl, Old Prussian alu, OCS olŭ
*h₂en- ancestor Gk. ἀννίς (annís), Lat. anus; anna, Mess. ana, Gm. ano/Ahn, Lith. anyta, Hitt. hannas, Arm. հան (han), Russ. внук (vnuk), Old Prussian ane, OIr. Ana
*h₂en- spirit Skr. अन (ana), Goth. uzanan; andi, OIr. animm; anál, Gk. ἄνεμος (ánemos), Lat. animus; anima, OCS vonja, Russ. вонь (von'), Welsh anysbryd, ON anda; ǫnd, Eng. eðian; ōþian, Welsh eneid, Av. åntya, Lith. anuoti, Arm. անձն (anjn); հողմ (hołm), Alb. ëj/âj, Oscan anamum, Toch. āñcäm/āñme
*h₂engwi- snake Lat. anguis; anguilla, Lith. angìs; ankštiraĩ; ungurys, OHG unc; angar/Engerling, Ir. escung/eascann, Welsh llys-yw-en; euod; euon, Russ. угорь (ugor'), Gk. ochis; échis; ἔγχελυς (énkhelus), OPruss. angurgis, Alb. thnegël, Toch auk, Arm. աւձ (awj), իժ (), Skt. áhis, Av. aži
*h₂enh₁-ti- duck Lat. anas, Skr. आति (ātí), Oss. ацц (acc), Russ. утка (utka), Gm. anut/Ente, Eng. æned/--, ON ǫnd, Lith/Ltv. ántis, Alb. rosë, Gk. νῆττα (nêtta)
*h₂enk- angle OHG ango, Osset. æнгуыр (ænguyr), Skr. अङ्कka), Lat. ancus, Lith. anka, Ltv. āķis, Arm. անկիւն (ankiwn); Gk. ὄγκος (ónkos); ἄγκος (ánkos), Russ. угол (ugol), ON angi, Av. akupəsəmna, Welsh angad; crafanc, OIr. ēcath, Hitt. hink
*h₂enǵʰ- narrow Gk. ἄγχω (ánkhō)/, Skr. अंहु (ahu), Av. ązahē, Russ. узкий (uzkij), Goth. aggwus, ON aungr, Arm. անձուկ (anjuk), Gm. engi/eng, Hitt. hamenk, OCS ǫzŭkŭ, Polish wąski, Lith. ankšta, Toch. ets/entse, Eng. enge/, Welsh yng, Ir. cumung/cung, Lat. angor; angere, Alb. ang
*h₂ep- river, lake Hitt. 𒄩𒉺𒀀 (ḫapaa), Palaic apnas, Luw. 𒄩𒀀𒁉𒅖 (ḫāpis), Ltv. upe, Lith. upė, Old Prussian ape, Eng. ōfer/, Gm. /Ufer, Skr. अप् (áp), Av. afš, Lat. amnis, Toch. āp/āp
*h₂ep- to reach Av. apayeiti, Lat. apex, Skr. आप्त (āpta), Gk. ἅπτω (háptō), Arm. ունիմ (unim), Hitt. apanzi, Toch. oppäśśi/, Polish opaść
*h₂eps-eh₂- aspen Eng. æspe/aspen, Gm. aspa/Espe, ON ǫsp, Lith. epušė, Ltv. apse, Old Pruss. abse, Pol. osa, Gk. ἄσπρις (áspris), Lat. abiēs, Welsh aethnen
*h₂er- nut Lith. ruošutỹs, Russ. орех (orékh), Alb. arrë, Gk. árna, Pol. orzech, Hitt. harau
*h₂erg- to lock Gk. ἀρκέω (arkéō), Lat. arcēre, Arm. արգել (argel), Goth. arka, Old Prussian arkan, Polish arkan, Hitt. ark-, Toch. B ārk, Oscan trííbarakavúm, Lith. raktas; užrakinti
*h₂erh₁- to plow Toch. āre/āre, Lat. arō; aratrum, Gk. ἀροτήρ (arotḗr), Lith. arti; ārklas, Ltv. art, OCS orati, Russ. орать (orat'), Arm. արաւր (arawr), Pol. orać, Goth. arjan, Eng. erian/, ON arðr, Welsh arddu; aradr, OIr. airim; arathar, OPruss. artoys, OHG erien
*h₂erǵó-, *h₂erǵí- white, shining Gk. ἄργυρος (árguros), Lat. arguō, Hitt. arkiš, Toch. ārki/arkwi, Eng. eorcnanstān/—, Gk. erchan?/—, Skr. अर्जुन (arjuna), Ir. argat/airgead, Av. arəzah, Welsh ariant, Oscan aragetud, Arm. արծաթ (arcatʿ), Phryg. arg, Thrac. arzas, Goth. unairkns
*h₂ew- to help Skr. अवति (ávati), Lat. aveō; avārus, Av. avaiti, Arm. աւիւն (awiwn), Gaul. Avicantus, Gk. -aones?, Lith. aušti, Ltv. aust, OIr. con-oí, Toch. olar/aulāre, ON auð, Eng. īþe/, Gm. ōdmuoti/, Welsh ewyllys; adaw
*h₂ewg- to glance Gk. αὐγή (augḗ), Alb. ag; agoj, Russ. юг (jug), OCS jugŭ
*h₂ewg- to increase Lith. augti, Ltv. augt, Lat. auctis, Gk. αὐξάνω (auksánō), Skr. उग्र (ugra), Toch. ok/auk, Eng. eacan/eke; weaxan/wax, Gm. ouh/auch; wahsan/wachsen, ON auka; vaxa, Goth. aukan; wahsjan, Old Prussian auginnons, Umbrian uhtur
*h₂ewh₂o-, *h₂éwh₂-yo- paternal grandfather, maternal uncle Lat. avus; avunculus, Gaul. avontīr, Gk. aia?, Lith. avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Arm. հաւ (haw), Eng. ēam/, Ir. aue/ó, Goth. awó, Gm. ōheim/Ohm; Awwe, OCS uy, Russ. уй (uj), Polish wuj, Hitt. huhhas; Alb. joshë
*h₂ews- dawn Lat. ver; Aurōra, Lith. aušra, Ltv. ausma, Gm. ōstra/Osten, Skr. उषस् (uas), Russ. утро (utro), Eng. ēast/east, Gk. ἠώς (ēṓs), ON austr, Av. ušastara, Ir. fáir, Welsh gwawr, Alb. err
*h₂éwis (gen. *h₂weys) bird Lat. avis, Av. vīš, Skr. वि (vís), Arm. հաւ (haw), Gk. ἀετός (aetós), Lith. višta, Ltv. vista, Umb. avif, Ir. aoi, Welsh hwyad, Alb. vida
*h₂eǵʰero- lake Lith. ežeras, Ltv. ezers, Russ. озеро (ozero), Illyr. Oseriates, Gk. Ἀχέρων (Akhérōn), OCS ѥзєро (jezero), Pol. jezioro, OPruss. assaran
*h₂eḱ- sharp Gk. ἄκρος (ákros), Lat. ācer, Skr. अश्रि (aśri), OCS остръ (ostrŭ), Russ. ость; острый (ost'; ostryj), Ir. aicher/, Lith. aštrus, Ltv. asmens, Goth. ahs, Pers. /ās, Gaul. Akrotalus, Welsh eithiw, Oscan akrid, Umbrian peracri, Arm. ասեղն (asełn), Alb. athët, Toch. āk/āke, Eng. ecg/edge, ON egg, Gm. egga/Ecke, Polish ostry, XMK akrounoi
*h₂nḗr man; power Lat. neriōsus, Welsh nerth, Alb. njer, Skr. नृ (nṛ́), नर (nára), Luw. anarummi, Lyd. nãrś, Lith. noras, Russ. нрав (nrav), Gaul. Nertobriga, Arm. այր (ayr), Gk. ἀνήρ (anḗr), Oscan 𐌓𐌈𐌈𐌍 (niir), Umbrian 𐌚𐌓𐌄𐌍 (nerf), Ir. nert/, Phryg. αναρ (anar)
*(H)néh₂s nose Lat. nāsus, Skr. नासा (nā́sā), OCS носъ (nosŭ), Russ. нос (nos), Lith. nosis, Ltv. nāss, Eng. nosu/nose, Av. nah, Gm. nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsu, Old Prussian nazy, Pers. nāham/, ON nös
*h₂ows- ear Lat. auris, Gk. οὖς (oûs), Skr. उसि (usi), OCS оухо (uxo), Russ. ухо (uxo), Goth. auso, Lith. ausis, Ltv. auss, Gaul. ausia-, Alb. vesh, Gm. ōra/Ohr, Ir. au/ Av. usi, Pers. gaušā/گوش (guš), Eng. ēare/ear, ON eyra, Arm. ունկն (unkn), OPruss. āusins. See also Hausos.
*h₂ŕ̥tḱos bear Gk. ἄρκτος (árktos), Lat. ursus, Skr. ऋक्ष (ṛkṣá), Pers. /خرس (khers), Arm. արջ (arǰ), Gaul. Artioni, Alb. arush/ari, Kamviri ic, Osset. арс (ars), Welsh arth, Ir. art/, Av. aršam, Hitt. artagga
*h₁égni- fire Skr. अग्नि (agní), Hitt. 𒀀𒀝𒉌𒅖 (agnis), Lat. ignis, Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS огнь (ognĭ), Polish ogień, Russ. огонь (ogon'), Alb. enjte
*h₂stḗr star Lat. stēlla, Gk. ἀστήρ (astḗr), Gm. sterro/Stern, Eng. steorra/star, ON stjarna, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌽𐍉 (stairnō), Arm. աստղ (astł), Skr. स्तृ (stṛ́); तारा (tārā), Welsh seren, Toch. śre/śćirye, Kamviri âšto, Pers. /ستاره (setāre), Osset. стъалы (st”aly), Hitt. 𒄩𒀸𒋼𒅕𒍝 (ḫasterza), Kurd. stérk/estére
*h₂u-per over Lat. super, Gk. ὑπέρ (hupér), Skr. उपरि (upari), Av. upairi, Eng. ofer/over, Gm. ubar/über, Goth. ufarō, ON yfir, Gaul. Uertragus, Ir. for/for, Pers. upariy/bar, Welsh gwarthaf, Oscan supruis, Umbrian super, Arm. վեր (ver), Av. upairi
*h₂wap- bad, evil Hitt. uwapp, Eng. yfel/evil, Gm. ubil/Übel, Goth. ubils
*h₂yuh₁en- young OCS junu, Russ. юный (junyj), Skr. युवन् (yuvan), Gaul. Jovincillus, Lith. jaunas, Ltv. jauns, Eng. geong/young, Av. yavan, Lat. juvĕnis, Umbrian iuengar , Gm. jung/jung, ON ungr, Goth. juggs, Welsh ieuanc, Ir. óc/óg, Pers. javān
*h₂éd-es- cereal Hitt. hattar, Lat. ador, Gm. ezzesc/Esch, Goth. atisk, Toch. āti/atiyo, Av. āðūfrāðana, Arm. հատ (hat), Gk. azein, Lith. adýti; ãdata
*h₂éǵros field Skr. अज्र (ajra), Gk. ἀγρός (agrós), Lat. ager, Umbrian ager, Goth. akrs, Eng. æcer/acre, Arm. արտ (art), Gm. achar/Acker, ON akr
*h₂ént-i front Hitt. anta, Luw. hantili, 'Lyc. xñtawata, Lith. ant, Eng. ende/end, Gm. endi/Ende, Goth. and, ON endr, Gk. ἀντί (antí), Ir. étan/éadan, Lat. antiae, Oscan ant, Toch. ānt/ānte, Alb. anë, Skt. ántas; antyas, Oss. æндæ (ændæ) (ændæ)/æндагон (ændagon) (ændagon)
*h₂érkʷo- bow Lat. arcus, Goth. arƕazna, Eng. arwe/arrow, Gk. ἄρκευθος (árkeuthos)?, Russ. ракита (rakita), Polish rakieta, Ltv. ērkšķis, ON ǫrvar, Umb. arçlataf
*h₂éwiǵ- oats Lat. avēna, Lith. aviža, Ltv. auza, Russ. овёс (ovjos), Polish owies, Gk. αἰγίλωψ (aigílōps)/, Old Prussian wyse, OCS ovĭsŭ
*h₂éy-es- (nom. *h₂éyos, gen. *h₂éyesos) metal Skr. अयस् (ayas), Lat. aes, Umbrian ahesnes, Gm. ēr/Erz, Eng. ār/ore, Av. ayah, Goth. aiz, ON eir, Pers. āhan
*h₂éǵʰ-r/n̥- day Skr. अहर् (ahar), Av. azan
*h₂ó-sd-o- branch Arm. ոստ (ost), Gk. ὄζος (ózos), Eng. ōst/, Gm. ast/Ast, Goth. asts, Hitt. ašduēr
*h₂ōwyóm egg Lat. ōvum, Gk. ᾠόν (ōión), Russ. яйцо (jajtso), Gm. ei/Ei, Eng. ǣg/Cockney, Ir. /ubh, Welsh ŵy, Alb. ve/vo, ON egg, Crimean Gothic ada, Arm. ձու (ju), Pers. xāyah, OCS ajĭse, Kurd. hék
*h₂ówis sheep OCS ovĭnŭ; ovĭca, Russ. овца (ovtsa), Lith. avìs; ãvinas, Ltv. avs, Skr. अविक (ávika), Eng. ēowu/ewe, Gm. ouwi/Aue, Goth. awēþi, ON ǽr, Gk. ὄϊς (óïs), OIr. ói, Hitt. awi, Luw. āwi-, Welsh ewig, Toch. —/āuw, Arm. հովիւ (hoviw), Pol. owca, Lat. ovis, Umb. uvem, OPruss awins, Lyc. xabwa